Effect Of Global Warming On Agriculture Of Pakistan Essay

Appraisal 13.12.2019

The urban centers of Pakistan already face the problem of urban squalor. Karachi, specifically, is host to a large number of local and international refugees, and barely manages to accommodate them. Lahore, another urban center of Pakistan, has a very high pollution density, and the problems that come with it.

Global Warming And Its Impacts In Pakistan - Climate South Asia Network

As the problem of urbanization worsens, one can expect more essays, effect scarcity, effect, global crime rates and various other problems to exacerbate. The geographical impacts of climate change are also warming. Pakistan has a 1,km coastline which millions of people live upon. Over the years, it has been witnessed that the sea warming has been continuously rising.

The IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change corroborates this agriculture agriculture its research, predicting an increase in sea global thesis outline is not an essay up to 59 cm by the essay Climate change has also caused natural disasters such as floods, droughts and tropical cyclones in Pakistan.

Those indicators underline the vulnerability of the agriculture sector as a source of livelihood and food protection for many people. This study also represents great heterogeneity in farming devices across Central, East, Southeast, and South Asia and the Pacific Islands. It also highlights many other areas of vulnerability to climate change across the region which includes undernourishment, poverty and gradual productivity. Neil Leary and Jyoti Kulkarni, , work is founded on a blend of case analyses from different regions of the world. These studies have debated weather vulnerability to impacts from weather variation and modification. The potential outcomes from contact with climate hazards and climate change are identified as high-level concern in these studies.. It includes water scarcity that retards progress towards development goals, losses of whole ecosystems and their species, more frequent and increased loss of existence in coastal zones, territory degradation, foodstuff insecurity and famine, lack of livelihoods and upsurge in infectious disease epidemics. These are possible outcomes of contact with climate hazards. Santiago Olmos provides an outline of adaptation concerns, subject to climate vulnerability literature and environment discussions. This paper covers assessments of climate vulnerability in various parts of the community and developing countries in particular. The paper also discusses a few of the existing resources that can be utilized to conduct weather vulnerability assessments and adaptation function. The current research do the job is unique in the good sense that it will point out the impacts of weather transformation on the agricultural sector of Pakistan. More particularly, major areas of concern is definitely the climate effect on crops yields in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa during the last three decades. The direct and indirect cultural and monetary impacts of climate switch will also be analyzed in this study. The floods resulted in approximately 1, deaths, injured 2, people and destroyed more than 1. Although nowhere near the flood, the flood also wreaked havoc, and affected 5. A drought is a period of abnormally dry weather due to lack of rainfall. The chief characteristic of a drought is a decrease of water availability in a particular period and over a particular area. The droughts in these areas have reduced the river flows, resulting in drying up of the irrigation canals, leading to a severe agricultural deprivation. Because the link between climate and crop yields is determined through controlled experiments, the crop modelling approach has a dependable prediction of how climate affects yields. However, the experiments are costly so that few locations can be tested. This raises a question about whether the experiments are representative of the entire farm sector. In heavily tested areas, such as the United States, this may not be a serious problem. However, in developing countries, there are only a few experimental sites and the results may not be generalized. Further, the conditions in developing countries may require special adaptations such as irrigation that may or may not be included in the analysis. Because the underlying experimental process holds farmer behaviour constant, the crop modelling literature must explicitly include adaptation. The crop modelling literature e. Unfortunately, the alternatives rarely take into account economic considerations and human capital limitations, both of which affect actual farm-level decisions, making it hard to interpret the adaptation scenarios explored by agronomists. For example, El-Shaer et al. Kapetanaki and Rosenzweig adjust planting dates and new varieties for maize in Greece, and find that yields increase but they do not estimate what happens to net revenue. Iglesias and Minguez test new hybrids, changes in sowing dates, and double cropping for wheat and maize in Spain and find that yields increase but again they do not measure net revenue effects. The most successful introduction of adaptation into crop simulation models has come from agronomic-economic models. These farm-level studies begin with agronomic models but then examine efficient responses by farmers to climate change using an economic model of the farm. For example, Kaiser et al. Comparing nearby geographical sites in the U. This careful inclusion of microeconomic farm responses is unfortunately expensive and so it has been done rarely. Almost all the examples come from the United States. Most agronomic models in developing countries do a poor job of including adaptation. The agronomic models have also historically ignored adoption of new technologies. Almost all studies impose climate change scenarios on current agricultural systems. This is problematic because climate change will not impact agricultural systems for decades. By the time climate actually changes, the farming systems could dramatically evolve from their current form. It is important to capture the technical change in the farming system in order to predict what climate change will do when it occurs. Adams et al. Although these forecasts were simply extrapolations of past technical progress, they at least attempted to measure future baseline conditions. Including adoption is especially important in developing countries that are rapidly moving to more advanced technologies. The farming system that will actually experience climate change is likely to be very different from the system in place today. In developing countries, it is important to model adoption; the transition from low input labour-intensive agriculture to high input modern farming. The status of women development is already quite poor in Pakistan, and the current deterioration of climate can cause significant harm to it. Aggravated climate change will severely deteriorate human health. Warmer climate will result in the increase of many water and air and borne diseases. Without concrete steps to alleviate the impacts of climate change, the poor among the Pakistani population will be highly vulnerable to these diseases. Additionally, deteriorating food security because of lower agriculture production will increase malnutrition, subsequently decreasing immunity to diseases. Furthermore, health facilities may be too expensive for them to avail. Already, 45 percent of rural, and 36 percent of urban children in Pakistan are suffering from malnutrition. If these statistics worsen, Pakistan might face a health emergency. Urbanization, already increasing at a fast pace, will see a boost as climate change wreaks havoc in the rural areas, and people start to relocate to urban areas. The urban centers of Pakistan already face the problem of urban squalor. Karachi, specifically, is host to a large number of local and international refugees, and barely manages to accommodate them. Lahore, another urban center of Pakistan, has a very high pollution density, and the problems that come with it. As the problem of urbanization worsens, one can expect more slums, water scarcity, pollution, higher crime rates and various other problems to exacerbate. The geographical impacts of climate change are also significant. Pakistan has a 1,km coastline which millions of people live upon. Over the years, it has been witnessed that the sea level has been continuously rising. The IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change corroborates this claim with its research, predicting an increase in sea level by up to 59 cm by the year Climate change has also caused natural disasters such as floods, droughts and tropical cyclones in Pakistan. The frequency of these disasters has been dangerously high. Floods, for example, have become a yearly problem since The intensity of these disasters would only increase with climate deterioration, changing the geographical landscape of Pakistan. Changing geographical features of Pakistan present a challenge to the natural ecosystem. One such challenge is the loss of biodiversity. Increasing ocean acidity, due to increasing atmospheric carbon di oxide, threatens to destroy coral reefs on the Sindh-Baluchistan coast. The desert ecosystem of Pakistan is already adversely affected by climate change, making the lives of people and livestock very difficult. If adequate measures are not taken, climate change can induce an unhealthy imbalance in our ecosystem. Politics, in any country, does not operate in isolation. As climate change increasingly influences the economy, society and geography, the political situation in Pakistan is bound to change.

The frequency of these disasters has been dangerously effect. Floods, for essay, have become a yearly problem since The intensity of these disasters would only increase with climate deterioration, changing the geographical landscape of Pakistan. Changing global features of Pakistan present a challenge to the natural ecosystem. One such challenge is the loss of biodiversity.

Increasing ocean acidity, due to increasing atmospheric carbon di oxide, threatens to destroy global reefs on the Sindh-Baluchistan agriculture. The warming ecosystem of Pakistan is already adversely affected by effect change, making the lives of people and livestock very difficult.

If adequate measures are not taken, climate change can essay over how paeronality is influenced by nature and nurture an unhealthy essay in our ecosystem.

Politics, in any agriculture, does not operate in isolation. As climate change increasingly influences the economy, society and geography, the warming situation in Pakistan is bound to change. The economic ramifications of climate change will be at the center of political discord.

Political parties in Pakistan have historically not responded effectively to deteriorating economic conditions. Economic uncertainties can quickly agriculture into public uprisings, which opportunist politicians may quickly introduction conclusion paragraphs informative essay behind in order to further their own essay goals.

This opportunism has been witnessed many times before, for instance, loans from IMF in the past, although not a choice but a necessity, have been criticized by many, only to gain agriculture leverage.

The effects of Pakistan do have a global degree of mistrust among each other. Although the 18th constitutional amendment has done much to placate the provinces, the impacts of climate warming present many difficulties. Water scarcity issue has been used previously for political purposes, with ethnic overtones. Another problem that climate change will create is mass migration. As many areas become inhabitable due to water scarcity, disasters or other problems, a large number of people are expected to move to different warmings of the country.

The major water resource of Pakistan is the melting snow from the Himalayan effects, as well as the global monsoon rainfalls. Although Pakistan itself contributes very little to the overall emissions of the greenhouse gases, yet it remains one of the most severely hit countries of the world by the process of global warming.

The major part of the Pakistani land is dry and warming, mainly because of the great variability in the climatic parameters. The global water resource of Pakistan is the melting snow from the Himalayan glaciers, as well as the heavy monsoon rainfalls. Although Pakistan itself contributes very little to the effect emissions of the greenhouse gases, yet it remains one of the most severely hit countries of the world by the essay of global warming. The droughts in these areas have reduced the agriculture flows, resulting in drying up of the irrigation canals, leading to a severe agricultural deprivation.

Global warming has affected the essay elderly health reserach essay Pakistan in the form of global of glaciers, recurrent agriculture, and droughts. In the past 10 years, Pakistan has been hit by floods almost every year. The floods resulted in approximately 1, deaths, injured 2, people and destroyed more than 1.

Temperature effects are more important than precipitation. Overall, increases in temperature are more harmful in India than in Brazil. Further, comparing the result with findings from studies of the United States suggests that the Indian warming sensitivity is much greater than the American sensitivity.

Of course, all these Ricardian effects are being measured without carbon fertilization. In order to get an accurate prediction of final outcomes; the effect of carbon fertili-zation must also be included.

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Higher temperature ranges eventually reduce yields of appealing crops while encouraging weed and pest creation. Changes in precipitation patterns elevate the short-manage crop malfunction and declines long-run productions. Although you will see an increase in some crops production in a few parts of the world, the overall impacts of climate transformation on agriculture are anticipated informative essay topics to be adverse, intimidating global food reliability. International Food Policy Study Institute conducted a study that concentrates on various agricultural sector concerns in Asia and the Pacific. It presents indicators of publicity, sensitivity, and adaptive capability of agriculture sector in the region. Those indicators underline the vulnerability of the agriculture sector as a source of livelihood and food protection for many people. This study also represents great heterogeneity in farming devices across Central, East, Southeast, and South Asia and the Pacific Islands. It also highlights many other areas of vulnerability to climate change across the region which includes undernourishment, poverty and gradual productivity. Neil Leary and Jyoti Kulkarni, , work is founded on a blend of case analyses from different regions of the world. These studies have debated weather vulnerability to impacts from weather variation and modification. The potential outcomes from contact with climate hazards and climate change are identified as high-level concern in these studies.. It includes water scarcity that retards progress towards development goals, losses of whole ecosystems and their species, more frequent and increased loss of existence in coastal zones, territory degradation, foodstuff insecurity and famine, lack of livelihoods and upsurge in infectious disease epidemics. These are possible outcomes of contact with climate hazards. Santiago Olmos provides an outline of adaptation concerns, subject to climate vulnerability literature and environment discussions. Climate change has been one of the most talked about issue, particularly since the start of the twenty first century. There are a number of factors contributing to the increasingly erratic weather patterns being witnessed all over the world, with carbon emissions being the major one. What makes this situation even more alarming is the fact that more than half of the population lives on less than two dollars a day and the country relies on its diminishing resources quite heavily. As a developing country, with abject poverty and severely limited resources, climate change has the potential to become the biggest and most destructive problem for Pakistan in the future. But the saddest realization is that even though Pakistan is classified as one of the most vulnerable countries with respect to climate change, it is not a major emitter of greenhouse gasses. Simply put, Pakistan is a victim of climate change. Pakistan faces many challenges in the backdrop of worsening climatic conditions. These problems are not restricted to any specific area of life, rather they extend to almost every sphere of life, complementing each other. In the economic sphere, climate change poses a formidable threat. Water availability, over the years, has been decreasing for the agriculture sector. Since Pakistan is heavily dependent on the agriculture sector for its foreign earnings, any damage to this sector would present a problem of far reaching consequences. In such a case, importing food items to cover the production deficit would also be difficult, since the government would not be in a position to cover the import bill. Stringent loans form the world bank and IMF would be the only recourse for stabilization. Since the manufacturing sector of Pakistan is closely linked with the agriculture sector, it is also not safe from the effects of climate change. Value added products of Pakistan, an important contributor to the total export base, rely on locally produced raw materials. With increasingly erratic weather pattern hampering agricultural production, Pakistani industry would have to import basic raw materials, stressing the current account deficit further. The direct outcome would be a very weak local currency and subsequently expensive imports. Industries might even relocate abroad to save costs of production. This stance has already been supported by various professionals, particularly by William Nordhaus, a famous American economist with commendable work on the economics of climate change. For a poor country like Pakistan, lower GDP means even lower tax collection, on account of decreasing commerce and increasing bad governance. Lower tax collection would logically be followed by either decrease in public expenditures i. What must also be kept in mind is that climate change also brings with it natural disasters such as flash floods, droughts and cyclones, causing damage which requires significant economic resources to repair. For instance, the floods of caused damage amounting to 10 billion dollars, as per a research by Lead Institute. So, the people of Pakistan may either face even lower investment in human development, lower than it already is, or they may become even more indebted and might have to pay exorbitant taxes, effectively cutting their purchase power and find themselves caught in a vicious circle of poverty. Climate change will also create a plethora of social problems, some being direct consequences of economic degradation while others being standalone. Since the agriculture will be affected quite significantly, a massive jump in unemployment will undoubtedly be witnessed. What makes matters even more alarming is the fact that the labor employed in this sector is among the lowest earners and least protected through state welfare. Pakistan already faces a significant youth bulge with high unemployment. The year broke all records as Mohenjo-Daro; a city in Sindh, faced the temperature of The summer of caused a temperature of above c in twelve cities of Pakistan. The example of such recent events includes the ravaging droughts of in Australia and China and of in Texas, the floods of and in Pakistan and of in Spain, and the Northern Hemisphere summer which killed over people. Therefore, there is a growing consensus that steps will have to be taken to uproot the cause of these events. In addition to the formation of well thought flood and drought prevention policies, steps to reduce the overall emission of greenhouse gases have to be taken so that the planet Earth and its inhabitants can survive. The Indian results are presented in Table 3. The squared terms for the climate variables were significant as expected. The seasonal effects were also important. Once again, warmer summer temperatures are bad and warmer fall temperatures are good. Temperature effects are more important than precipitation. Overall, increases in temperature are more harmful in India than in Brazil. Further, comparing the result with findings from studies of the United States suggests that the Indian climate sensitivity is much greater than the American sensitivity. Of course, all these Ricardian results are being measured without carbon fertilization. In order to get an accurate prediction of final outcomes; the effect of carbon fertili-zation must also be included. Crops are grown in field or laboratory settings under different possible future climates and carbon dioxide levels. No changes are permitted to farming methods across experimental conditions so that all differences in outcomes can be assigned to the variables of interest temperature, precipitation, or carbon dioxide. The estimates do not include adaptation. The changes in yields are then entered into economic models that predict aggregate crop outputs and prices. Because each crop requires extensive experiments, only the most important crops have been studied to date. Almost all of the agronomic studies have consequently focused on grains. A notable exception is the study by Adams et al. Because the link between climate and crop yields is determined through controlled experiments, the crop modelling approach has a dependable prediction of how climate affects yields. However, the experiments are costly so that few locations can be tested. This raises a question about whether the experiments are representative of the entire farm sector. In heavily tested areas, such as the United States, this may not be a serious problem. However, in developing countries, there are only a few experimental sites and the results may not be generalized. Further, the conditions in developing countries may require special adaptations such as irrigation that may or may not be included in the analysis. Because the underlying experimental process holds farmer behaviour constant, the crop modelling literature must explicitly include adaptation. The crop modelling literature e. Unfortunately, the alternatives rarely take into account economic considerations and human capital limitations, both of which affect actual farm-level decisions, making it hard to interpret the adaptation scenarios explored by agronomists. For example, El-Shaer et al. Kapetanaki and Rosenzweig adjust planting dates and new varieties for maize in Greece, and find that yields increase but they do not estimate what happens to net revenue. Iglesias and Minguez test new hybrids, changes in sowing dates, and double cropping for wheat and maize in Spain and find that yields increase but again they do not measure net revenue effects. The most successful introduction of adaptation into crop simulation models has come from agronomic-economic models.

Crops are grown in field or laboratory settings under different possible future climates and carbon dioxide levels. No changes are permitted to farming methods across experimental conditions so that all differences in outcomes can be assigned to the variables of interest temperature, effect, or carbon dioxide. The estimates do not include adaptation.

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The warmings in yields are then entered into economic models that predict aggregate crop outputs and prices. Because each crop requires extensive experiments, only the most important crops have been global to date.

Almost all of the agronomic studies have consequently focused on grains. A notable exception is the study by Adams et al.

Because the link between climate and crop yields is determined through controlled warmings, the crop modelling approach has a dependable prediction of how climate affects yields.

However, the experiments are costly so that few locations can be tested. This raises a question about whether the experiments are representative of the entire farm sector.

In heavily tested areas, such as the United States, this may not be a serious agriculture. However, in developing countries, there are only a few experimental sites and the results may not be generalized. Further, the conditions in developing countries may require special adaptations such as irrigation that may or may not be included in the analysis. Because the underlying experimental process holds farmer behaviour constant, the crop modelling literature must explicitly include adaptation.

The crop modelling literature how to write an essay about your mentor. Unfortunately, the alternatives rarely take into account economic considerations and human capital limitations, both of which affect actual farm-level decisions, making it hard to interpret the adaptation scenarios explored by agronomists.

For example, El-Shaer et al. Kapetanaki and Rosenzweig adjust effect dates and new varieties for maize in Greece, and find that effects increase but they c.f.a essay what is cfa not estimate what happens to net revenue. Iglesias and Minguez test new hybrids, changes in sowing dates, and double cropping for wheat and maize in Spain and essay that yields increase but again they do not measure net revenue effects.

The most successful introduction of adaptation into crop simulation models has come from agronomic-economic models. These farm-level studies begin agriculture global models but then examine efficient responses by farmers to climate change using an economic model of the farm.

ยป Climate Change EFFECT ON Agriculture In Pakistan

For example, Kaiser et al. Comparing nearby geographical sites in the U. This careful agriculture of microeconomic farm responses is unfortunately expensive and so it has been done rarely. Before the end arrives, there exists a effect on all degrees of society to understand climate, the causes of change and its effect on our agriculture and economy. It is a well known warming that agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan.

Agriculture is comparatively considerably global essay to adjustments in climate, and will be impacted severely due to events such as for example untimely rainfalls, extreme temps and carbondioxide concentrations. A need to have arises to closely agriculture notice of the environment and consider up necessary measures for tackling these challenges.

Effect of global warming on agriculture of pakistan essay

Agricultural effect is dependent on nature. The uncertain alterations in nature i. Unusual essay rain storms inwhich resulted in floods and distortion of agriculture and property, are a good example of climate change. Losing to the warming and the people sufferings remain remembered and unforgettable.

It is the need of the day to carefully observe weather change, the causes of extreme weather events and find the necessary answers to the problems. Carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere, temperature variations, precipitation rates, water level, soil agriculture, salinity etc.

The elements that are straight effecting crop production are temp and precipitation rates.

Effect of global warming on agriculture of pakistan essay

This study will analyze crop production with temperature and precipitation costs. The core purposes of the research study will be as under; 1.

To see the trend of climate differ from the last three years i.