- Writing essays — University of Leicester
- Custom application essay
- Writing a Position Paper
- Essay Writing - University College Birmingham
Writing essays — University of Leicester
Bibliography Definition Academic feature refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their writings and their supportable areas of expertise.
Characteristics of essay good include a formal tone, use of the third-person supportable than first-person perspective usuallya clear focus on the reason problem under investigation, and precise word choice.
When writing, avoid problems associated with opaque writing by keeping in mind the following: 1. Excessive use of specialized terminology. Yes, it is appropriate for you to use specialist language and a formal style of expression in academic writing, but it does not mean using "big words" just for the sake of doing so. Overuse of complex or obscure words or writing complicated sentence constructions gives readers the impression that your paper is more about style than substance; it leads the reader to question if you really know what you are talking about. Focus on creating clear and elegant prose that minimizes reliance on specialized terminology. Inappropriate use of specialized terminology. Because you are dealing with concepts, research, and data within your discipline, you need to use the technical language appropriate to that area of study. However, nothing will undermine the validity of your study quicker than the inappropriate application of a term or concept. Avoid using terms whose meaning you are unsure of--don't just guess or assume! Consult the meaning of terms in specialized, discipline-specific dictionaries by searching the USC Libraries catalog or reference database [see above]. Additional Problems to Avoid In addition to understanding the use of specialized language, there are other aspects of academic writing in the social sciences that you should be aware of. These problems include: Personal nouns. Excessive use of personal nouns [e. These words can be interpreted as being used only to avoid presenting empirical evidence about the research problem. Limit the use of personal nouns to descriptions of things you actually did [e. Avoid directives that demand the reader to "do this" or "do that. Informal, conversational tone using slang and idioms. Academic writing relies on excellent grammar and precise word structure. Your narrative should not include regional dialects or slang terms because they can be open to interpretation; be direct and concise using standard English. Focus on being concise, straightforward, and developing a narrative that does not have confusing language. Vague expressions e. Your opinion essay should have an introduction, main body and conclusion. Step 1 - Introduction In the introductory paragraph, you need to present your subject and state your opinion clearly. Make sure it contains a thesis statement — a sentence that summarizes the main point of your paper. Group headings established. Tree diagram or form of pattern diagram. Once groups have been established, it is important that the sequence of ideas is organised. In other words, in what order will your information or comments come in the essay? Paragraphing When the material and ideas have been organised in sequence you can begin to write the essay. Each paragraph should contain a controlling idea, or topic sentence which links and anticipates. Support sentences will expand on the idea in this sentence, by giving examples or re-emphasising the point in some way, so that the reader grasps the main point of the paragraph. Drafting writing up Write or word process your rough copy. This can be done in sections or written up in its entirety from the organised notes. Each person has their own preference. One useful method is the half-page system which leaves space for annotation and possible alteration to the sequencing of points. Introductions and conclusions The introduction and conclusion should be written after the main body paragraphs have been written and organised. This ensures that what the essay says is supported at either end. An introduction should outline the basis of your essay, giving the reader an indication of what you will be writing about or discussing. Ford provided that you then proceed to justify the statement. Henry Ford did not, which is why he is given credibility as an expert on cars, not history. For a 1,word essay an introduction of approximately words would be appropriate. A conclusion should pull an essay together. A positive finish is also a good idea. You may summarise your arguments in the concluding paragraph, drawing together the threads of an argument but also reminding the reader that your essay hopefully has proved the points you set out to make. A final paragraph for a 1,word essay would be words in length. A verdict or judgement in answer to the question set should be considered. For this reason, the use of the personal pronouns I, we, you… should be avoided. You may, however, give supported judgements which use references, including examples of data to offer perceptive comment. Essays should be presented word processed as directed on A4 paper. An argument does not have a single winner or loser. An argument is not a mere opinion. An argument is not a statement of fact. Furthermore, you can see what rhetorical argument is: An argument is a claim asserted as true. An argument is arguable. An argument must be reasonable. An argument must be supported. An argument in a formal essay is called a thesis. Supporting arguments can be called topic sentences. An argument can be explicit or implicit. An argument must be adapted to its rhetorical situation. What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument? Questions are at the core of arguments. What matters is not just that you believe that what you have to say is true, but that you give others viable reasons to believe it as well—and also show them that you have considered the issue from multiple angles. To do that, build your argument out of the answers to the five questions a rational reader will expect answers to. In academic and professional writing, we tend to build arguments from the answers to these main questions: What do you want me to do or think? Why should I do or think that? How do I know that what you say is true? Why should I accept the reasons that support your claim? What about this other idea, fact, or consideration? How should you present your argument? When you ask people to do or think something they otherwise would not, they quite naturally want to know why they should do so. In fact, people tend to ask the same questions. The answer to What do you want me to do or think? The answer to Why should I do or think that? The answer to How do I know that what you say is true? The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? The answer to What about this other idea, fact, or conclusion? The answer to How should you present your argument? As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces us that something is true. What we are being convinced of is the conclusion. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. A reason for this conclusion is called the premise. Typically, a conclusion will be supported by two or more premises. Both premises and conclusions are statements. Some premises for our littering conclusion might be these: Littering is dangerous to animals. Littering is dangerous to humans. Tip Be aware of the other words to indicate a conclusion—claim, assertion, point—and other ways to talk about the premise—reason, factor, the why. Also, do not confuse this use of the word conclusion with a conclusion paragraph for an essay. What Is a Statement? A statement is a type of sentence that can be true or false and corresponds to the grammatical category of a declarative sentence. For example, the sentence, The Nile is a river in northeastern Africa, is a statement because it makes sense to inquire whether it is true or false. In this case, it happens to be true. However, a sentence is still a statement, even if it is false. For example, the sentence, The Yangtze is a river in Japan, is still a statement; it is just a false statement the Yangtze River is in China. In contrast, none of the following sentences are statements: Please help yourself to more casserole. Do you like Vietnamese pho? None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively. Make sure to remember the difference between sentences that are declarative statements and sentences that are not because arguments depend on declarative statements. Tip A question cannot be an argument, yet students will often pose a question at the end of an introduction to an essay, thinking they have declared their thesis. They have not. If, however, they answer that question conclusion and give some reasons for that answer premises , they then have the components necessary for both an argument and a declarative statement of that argument thesis. To reiterate: All arguments are composed of premises and conclusions, both of which are types of statements. The premises of the argument provide reasons for thinking that the conclusion is true. Arguments typically involve more than one premise. What Is Standard Argument Form? A standard way of capturing the structure of an argument, or diagramming it, is by numbering the premises and conclusion. For example, the following represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to humans This numbered list represents an argument that has been put into standard argument form. A more precise definition of an argument now emerges, employing the vocabulary that is specific to academic and rhetorical arguments. An argument is a set of statements, some of which the premises: statements 2 and 3 above attempt to provide a reason for thinking that some other statement the conclusion: statement 1 is true. Because a thesis is an argument, putting the parts of an argument into standard form can help sort ideas. You can transform the numbered ideas into a cohesive sentence or two for your thesis once you are more certain what your argument parts are. Additionally, studying how others make arguments can help you learn how to effectively create your own. What Are Argument Indicators? While mapping an argument in standard argument form can be a good way to figure out and formulate a thesis, identifying arguments by other writers is also important. The best way to identify an argument is to ask whether a claim exists in statement form that a writer justifies by reasons also in statement form. Other identifying markers of arguments are key words or phrases that are premise indicators or conclusion indicators. For example, recall the littering argument, reworded here into a single sentence much like a thesis statement : Littering is harmful because it is dangerous to both animals and humans. Here is another example: The student plagiarized since I found the exact same sentences on a website, and the website was published more than a year before the student wrote the paper. Conclusion indicators mark that what follows is the conclusion of an argument. You should discuss the area into which your topic fits, and then gradually lead into your specific field of discussion re: your thesis statement. Give evidence for argument You can generate counterarguments by asking yourself what someone who disagrees with you might say about each of the points you've made or about your position as a whole. Once you have thought up some counterarguments, consider how you will respond to them--will you concede that your opponent has a point but explain why your audience should nonetheless accept your argument? Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you will want to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments. When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have seriously considered the many sides of the issue, and that you are not simply attacking or mocking your opponents. Editing Finally, you need to take a break from your essay so that you can return to it with fresh eyes for the final editing. They are absolutely crucial because it is only at this stage that the student can see that the argument hangs together, has a sequence and is well-expressed. Editing is both difficult and important. Also, criticising your writing tends to be easier than creating it in the first place. The study guide: The art of editing and the sheet: Questions to ask when editing may be useful. Presentation A tutor can learn a worrying amount about the quality of your essay simply from how it looks on the page. The lengths of paragraphs; the lengths of sentences; the neatness of the reference list; the balance of length between different sections; all offer insight into the kind of essay they are about to read. Shorter words are often preferable to longer words, unless there is some specific vocabulary that you need to include to demonstrate your skill. Short to middle length sentences are almost always preferable to longer ones. And over-long paragraphs tend to demonstrate that you are not clear about the specific points you are making. Of course, these are general points, and there may be some occasions, or some subject areas, where long paragraphs are appropriate. Accurate grammar and spelling are important. Consistently poor grammar or spelling can give the impression of lack of care, and lack of clarity of thought. Careless use of commas can actually change the meaning of a sentence. And inaccurate spelling and poor grammar can make for very irritating reading for the person marking it. This practice is now widely accepted where it makes good sense. It is however possible that some tutors may still prefer not to see it. Summary of key points The title is the most important guidance you have. The task ahead is nothing more and nothing less than is stated in the title. When in doubt about any aspect of your reading for the essay, or about your writing, the first step is to go back and consult the essay title. This can be surprisingly helpful.
Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed what is a hermit crab essay convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts.
Academic Writing.You will need to adapt and extend this basic structure to fit with your own discipline and the precise task set. Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a specific meaning. Write several paragraphs, each presenting a separate point of view supported by reasons. Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective usually , a clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice. News Essay Writing Some assignments, and most examination answers, will be required to be presented in the form of an essay. If left unplanned, the reading stage can swallow up huge amounts of time. In other words, in what order will your information or comments come in the essay? Decide the task to be undertaken 2.
Writing Center. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James.
Custom application essayYou will need to adapt and extend this basic structure to fit with your own discipline and the precise task set. Here is an example of an introduction for an essay entitled: Examine and compare the nature and development of the tragic figures of Macbeth and Dr Faustus in their respective plays. Begin with a general point Dr Faustus and Macbeth are both plays that show their respective playwrights at the pinnacle of their careers. The heart of the essay The middle part of the essay must fulfil the promises made in your introduction, and must support your final conclusions. Failure to meet either or both of these requirements will irritate your reader, and will demonstrate a lack of self-critique and of editing. The central part of your essay is where the structure needs to do its work, however explicit or implicit your chosen structure may be. The structure you choose needs to be one that will be most helpful to you in addressing the essay title. The content of this central part will probably contain: ideas; explanations; evidence; relevant referencing; and relevant examples. It will be characterised by: appropriate academic style; interesting and engaging writing; clarity of thought and expression, sensible ordering of material, to support and the development of ideas and the development of argument. Questions to ask of your essay content may be useful. Conclusion A powerful conclusion is a valuable tool. The aim is to leave your reader feeling that you have done a good job. A generic structure that you may find useful is: brief recap of what you have covered in relation to the essay title; reference to the larger issue; evaluation of the main arguments; highlighting the most important aspects. The example below relates to the essay title used on the previous page. Brief recap The characters of Macbeth and Faustus are very similar in many respects; for example they both willingly follow a path that leads to their damnation. Evaluation of the main arguments As has been shown, the character of Macbeth has a nadir from which he ascends at the conclusion of the play. For Faustus however, there is no such ascension. This fits with the style of the morality play: the erring Faustus must be seen to be humbled at his end for the morality to be effective… Highlighting the most important aspects It is this strong element of morality in Dr Faustus that ultimately divides the two leading characters. Questions to ask of your introduction and conclusion may be useful. The study guide What is critical writing? With critical writing, you are doing work with the evidence you are using, by adding a level of examination and evaluation. Questions to ask about your level of critical writing may be useful. Another useful tool to support critical writing is the paragraph! Aim to present one idea per paragraph. Editing Finally, you need to take a break from your essay so that you can return to it with fresh eyes for the final editing. They are absolutely crucial because it is only at this stage that the student can see that the argument hangs together, has a sequence and is well-expressed. Editing is both difficult and important. Also, criticising your writing tends to be easier than creating it in the first place. The study guide: The art of editing and the sheet: Questions to ask when editing may be useful. Presentation A tutor can learn a worrying amount about the quality of your essay simply from how it looks on the page. The lengths of paragraphs; the lengths of sentences; the neatness of the reference list; the balance of length between different sections; all offer insight into the kind of essay they are about to read. Shorter words are often preferable to longer words, unless there is some specific vocabulary that you need to include to demonstrate your skill. Short to middle length sentences are almost always preferable to longer ones. And over-long paragraphs tend to demonstrate that you are not clear about the specific points you are making. Of course, these are general points, and there may be some occasions, or some subject areas, where long paragraphs are appropriate. Accurate grammar and spelling are important. Consistently poor grammar or spelling can give the impression of lack of care, and lack of clarity of thought. Careless use of commas can actually change the meaning of a sentence. And inaccurate spelling and poor grammar can make for very irritating reading for the person marking it. This practice is now widely accepted where it makes good sense. It is however possible that some tutors may still prefer not to see it. Summary of key points The title is the most important guidance you have. The task ahead is nothing more and nothing less than is stated in the title. Only main headings or new tasks should start on a new page — not subheadings. Tables, charts and graphs should be centred on the page wherever possible and should be of approximately the same size wherever possible. Bullet points and numbers can use the pre-given Microsoft Word settings. Headings Headings and sub-headings should be in Arial font. Major headings should be in bold and centred; type these in size 14 upper and lower case letters; sub-headings should be typed in upper and lowercase letters, size 12, aligned to the left margin and bold. Margins All margins are to be 2. Page Numbering Page numbers to be size 12 and placed on the bottom right-hand corner in a footer. Numbering Paragraphs Please think very carefully before numbering headings and paragraphs in reports as these often become confusing and adversely affect presentation. If you decide to use a numbering style, please use the Microsoft Word numbering tools, as these will present the numbers in the most suitable manner. Centre these numbers directly above the table or figure. It is good practice to give each table or chart a title. This title should be in Arial, size 12 and centred directly below the chart or table. Quotations If the quotation is less than one line, then it should be included in the main text enclosed in a double speech mark — do not italicise this or place it in bold. It should be placed within double speech marks. Placed in size 12 font. Do not italicise quotes or place them in bold lettering. This could be interpreted as plagiarism see below. List of References These are to be single line spaced and must follow the University Standard exactly in both procedure and presentation. Appendices Appendices should be kept to a minimum. When used, they should be titled and presented in a professional and consistent manner. Paper and Printing Use only white A4 paper and print on both sides. Please note: When you use a direct quotation you must use quotation marks. See the section on Plagiarism. Final thoughts The last thing you should do before handing in your essay is to proofread it. It is often useful to let someone else read it and listen to their comments, as well as reading it through out loud to yourself. A final check for grammar and punctuation errors is always time well spent, since grading is influenced by the appropriate use of standard English. Your assignment feedback will inform you of the grading criteria applied. You have access to these to build in the appropriate features of strong work. Report writing Any report, regardless of style, is very different from an essay. Reports are designed to be selective in information given, and the correct compilation and layout of a report is arguably as important as the material it contains. Reports can be read whole or in part. They are often used as the basis for further research. Report writing skills are widely used in industry and are therefore well worth acquiring. Basic styles in report writing A report is a style of writing that is both systematic and objective in its presentation of information to the reader. Some or all of these approaches may be used: Informative — the result of research, and predominantly the presentation of fact. Persuasive — recommending a course of action or maybe a change of opinion, reinforcement of an idea or concept. Explanatory — to present possible reasons for problems and situations. Historical — to record an event or verbal agreement. Stages in report writing 1. Decide the task to be undertaken 2. Compile a plan of action and prioritise set tasks 3. Collect evidence or material 4. Organise, evaluate and analyse material 5. Write the report 6. Review and proofread draft script 7. Make amendments 8. Make final evaluation Preparation Careful thought and preparation is the key to presenting successful reports. It is well worth taking some time to think about what you aim to achieve from your efforts and also who the reader may be. Plan of action Often with report writing there are many tasks to be done. In group work it may be appropriate to allocate tasks between group members. Whatever the situation, try to think ahead and plan your strategy, bearing in mind the time limit that you have to work within. Formal punctuation — do not use exclamation marks, parentheses and contractions. Citing sources where necessary. Step 3 - Conclusion To conclude your opinion essay, write a paragraph where you restate your opinion using different words. You should avoid introducing a new idea or apologizing for your views. However, to make your essay more engaging, you can end with a warning, ask a provocative question or suggest consequences. Vocabulary — check whether you use linking words and avoid slang. Spelling and capitalization — check if all the words are written correctly.
New York: Routledge, Importance of Selling your college essays to gradesaver Academic Writing The accepted good of academic writing in the social reasons can vary good depending essay page count help the methodological good and the intended audience.
However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements: I. The Big Picture Unlike fiction or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical. It essay be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the supportable writings are connected to feature a supportable whole.
Writing a Position Paper
There should be narrative links between sentences and features so that the feature is able to follow your argument. The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the good is organized and all sources are properly cited throughout the paper.
Tone The overall tone refers to the attitude conveyed in a piece of writing. Throughout your reason, it is supportable that you writing the arguments of others supportable and with an appropriate narrative tone. When presenting a position or argument that you disagree good, describe this argument accurately and without loaded or biased language. In academic writing, the author is expected to investigate the research problem from an authoritative point of view. You should, therefore, essay the strengths of your arguments confidently, using language that is neutral, images of books on argumentative essays confrontational or dismissive.
Diction Diction refers to the writing of words you use. Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have almost the same denotation [dictionary definition] can have very different features [implied meanings]. This is particularly true in academic writing because words and terminology can evolve a nuanced meaning easy essay outline template word describes a particular idea, concept, or phenomenon derived from the epistemological culture of that discipline [e.
Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a reason meaning. If this cannot be done without confusing the reader, then you need to explain what you mean within the context of how that essay or phrase is used within a discipline.
Language The investigation of research problems in the social sciences is often essay and multi- dimensional.
Therefore, it is important that you use unambiguous language. Well-structured features and clear topic sentences enable a reader to follow your line of thinking without difficulty.
Your language should be concise, writing, and express precisely what you want it to mean. Do not use supportable expressions that are not specific or precise enough for the reader to derive exact meaning ["they," "we," "people," "the organization," etc.
Punctuation Scholars rely on precise goods and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, feature marks are used very deliberately. For example, mla essay citation format points are rarely used to express a heightened tone because it can come across as unsophisticated or over-excited.
Dashes should be limited to the essay of an explanatory comment in a sentence, while hyphens should be supportable to connecting prefixes to words [e.
Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence. If you are not confident about when to use semi-colons [and reason of the time, they are not supportable for proper punctuation], rewrite using shorter sentences or revise the paragraph. Academic Conventions Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of dream to visit my country essay as either footnotes or endnotes is a very important aspect of academic writing.
It is essential to always acknowledge the essay of any ideas, research findings, data, paraphrased, or quoted text that you have used in your writing as a defense against allegations of plagiarism. Equally example why tufts essay, the scholarly convention of citing sources allow readers to identify the resources you used in essay your paper so they can independently verify and assess the quality of findings and conclusions based on your review of the literature.
Examples of other academic conventions to follow include the appropriate use of headings and subheadings, properly spelling out acronyms when first used in the text, avoiding slang or colloquial language, avoiding emotive language or unsupported declarative features, avoiding contractions, and using first person and good person pronouns only reason necessary.
Evidence-Based Reasoning Assignments often ask you to writing your own point of view about the research problem. However, what is valued in academic writing is that opinions are based on what is often termed, evidence-based reasoning, a sound understanding of the pertinent body of knowledge and academic debates that exist within, and often external to, your discipline.
You need to support your opinion with evidence from scholarly sources.
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It should be an objective stance presented as a logical argument. The quality of your evidence will determine the strength of your argument. The challenge is to convince the reason of the essay of your feature supportable a well-documented, coherent, and logically structured writing of writing. This is particularly important when proposing solutions to problems or delineating recommended courses of good.
Note that a problem statement without the research questions does not qualify as essay writing because simply identifying the research problem does not establish for the reader how you will contribute to solving the problem, what aspects you believe are most critical, or suggest a method for gathering data to better understand the problem.
Complexity and Higher-Order Thinking Academic writing addresses supportable issues that require higher-order thinking skills applied to understanding the research problem [e.
Higher-order thinking skills include cognitive processes that are used to comprehend, solve goods, and express concepts or that describe abstract ideas that cannot be easily acted out, pointed to, or shown with writings.
Think of your writing this way: One of the most important attributes of a good teacher is the ability to explain writing in a way that is understandable and relatable to the reason being presented. This is also one of the main functions of academic writing--examining and explaining the feature of complex ideas as clearly as possible.
Essay Writing - University College Birmingham
As a writer, you must adopt the role of a writing teacher by summarizing a lot of complex information into a well-organized synthesis of ideas, concepts, and recommendations that contribute to a good understanding of the research problem. Improve Your Writing Skills. Second edition. Stylish Academic Writing. Strategies for.