Why Women Targeted As Human Trafficking Essay

Discussion 14.03.2020
This is why we are increasingly seeing variables such as race, religion or sexual orientation being taken into consideration in studies on domestic violence against women, for example. For these authors, however, analyses of sex trafficking persist in maintaining a closed dialogue, influenced by a conservative view of prostitution as a form of violence against women in an industry — the sex industry — created and managed by men, in which women have no autonomy or power to act. This view is particularly important when a Southern epistemology is introduced into the analysis, forcing us to take into account the strategies of women who, due to various factors economic, cultural, the consequences of war, etc. From a post-colonial perspective, these authors therefore point out that attention should be paid to women from the South so that their interests can be understood and the social relations in which they engage are not constantly seen as archaic and authoritarian. Their consent is a central issue here, and their voice, migration choices and survival strategies should be taken into account. Some of these women are migrant workers and not sex slaves; they want security but do not want to be saved Kempadoo, b. Sweden, for example, criminalises procurement and punishes clients who resort to sexual services provided by trafficked women, whilst the German and Dutch governments have decriminalised prostitution and established rules to regulate employment in this area. Due to this diversity of legal situations, the Protocol does not clarify this controversial issue but leaves it as a matter for individual states to decide. The CATW states that it agrees with the beliefs expressed in the Convention on Trafficking, namely that prostitution and trafficking are incompatible with human dignity and that consent to trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation is impossible, whilst the GAATW considers that the Protocol only covers enforced prostitution and does not demand that governments treat all prostitution as trafficking. The situation in Portugal 36The trafficking of human beings is, as a rule, a very clandestine, closed and complex phenomenon, for which it is difficult to calculate the real numbers of people involved. In a model was introduced to signal, identify and integrate individuals involved in trafficking situations, which appears to have made an important contribution towards a more informed understanding of the quantitative reality of human trafficking in Portugal. According to a joint statement issued by the Coordinator and National Rapporteur for Human Trafficking and the team leader of the Observatory for Human Trafficking, by June the monitoring system had accounted for a total of cases of possible human trafficking situations 46 signalled in the first 6 months of , and the remainder the result of signalling during the previous year. Some of these cases were still then under investigation in order to confirm whether or not they involved situations of trafficking. One aspect of the situation seems to stand out in particular: the overwhelming majority of the alleged victims were foreigners, particularly Brazilians above all when sexual exploitation was involved. The situation of illegal status was common to two thirds of the foreign individuals signalled, reinforcing the idea that illegality contributes to the vulnerability of many immigrants, placing them in situations that favour various kinds of exploitation Santos et al. It is particularly significant that, even though the cases signalled refer mainly to sexual exploitation, the majority of those already confirmed are associated with exploitation of labour and involve male victims. This fact may represent the reality, but it may also be the result of the greater complexity involved in detecting and confirming sex trafficking. Sex trafficking as a crime 8 8 Due to limited space we present here only a brief summary of the evolution of this legal precept. One of the main changes was that the protection of individual interests took priority over the protection of the moral values of society. It should be stressed, however, that the goal was not to punish the practice of prostitution itself, but the conduct of agents who, by deceptive or violent means, involved individuals in prostitution or other defined sexual acts in a foreign country. The law added the following objective elements: abuse of authority resulting from a hierarchical, economic or employment relationship in which the victim is a dependent, and profiting from any particularly vulnerable circumstances affecting the victim. Moreover, the fact that few cases of human trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation have been brought to court limits the debate in terms of jurisprudence and deeper examination of the concept. Some of the amendments were imposed by European Union framework decisions and other instruments binding upon the Portuguese state. The crime of human trafficking no longer appeared in the section of the Penal Code referring to crimes against sexual freedom, but was moved to the chapter on crimes against personal freedom. An agent who commits the crime of pimping, either by using violence or extreme threats, deception or fraudulent acts or by abusing the authority resulting from a family, supervisory or guardian relationship, a dependent hierarchical, economic or employment relationship, or by taking advantage of the psychological incapacity or any vulnerability associated with the victim, shall be punished with a term of imprisonment of 1 to 8 years. In addition, according to Vaz Patto, the question of consent assumes particular relevance here, especially for those who are on opposite sides of the debate concerning the legalisation of prostitution. Although he emphasizes that these are separate issues, he argues that the fact that consent is considered irrelevant in situations where vulnerability is exploited may, in practice, come close to criminalising prostitution in general, the reverse being equally possible. However, we also encountered cases, either reported by interviewees or through analyses of legal proceedings, in which women did not know that the work awaiting them in Portugal was prostitution. Extreme cases of deception — in which the woman did not know she would be forced to work as a prostitute or in any other activity of a sexual nature — involve primarily women of other nationalities, in particular those from Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. This perception merits various considerations. Firstly, it should be noted that it was through violent cases involving women from Eastern Europe that Portugal woke up to the reality of this kind of trafficking. Indeed, in these informal groups it is not unusual for the recruiters to be people who have great credibility in the eyes of their victims, since they are friends, family members, colleagues, etc. As a member of the criminal police force told us: 16 Quoted from an interview transcribed in Santos et al. That is not to say that she might not be, that issues concerning her origins before coming here might not make her a victim of trafficking. But the tendency is not to consider this. This is a situation that clearly has to be corrected. On the other hand, what happens with this Moldavian and others from Eastern Europe is that we immediately look at them differently, because these are situations that clearly represent potential cases of trafficking. Not just pimping, not just illegal immigration, but potential trafficking situations. Following on from the work of Kelly and Regan apud Aronowitz, , there are several levels of victimisation which correspond to different types of victims. The first level is associated with total coercion, when victims are kidnapped and there is no consent whatsoever. The third level involves a lesser degree of deception, when women know they will be working in the sex industry, but not in prostitution. Finally, the fourth level of victimisation, which is taken to be the least serious, concerns women who, prior to departure, already knew that they would be working as prostitutes, but did not know the extent to which they would be controlled, intimidated, indebted and exploited. There are many reasons why these cases run the risk of going unnoticed: 1 there are many women who were prostitutes in their country of origin, and therefore, to a biased eye, it is difficult to see them as victims or as exploited; 2 there are women who knew they were coming to work as prostitutes and accepted the initial rules of the game; yet, despite maintaining the illusion that they live in a world they have created of their own free will, are frequently subjected to redefinitions and changes of rules by those in a position to take advantage of the previously mentioned vulnerabilities and invisibilities; 3 there are many immigrant women who chose to work as prostitutes in Portugal without losing control of the rules of the game. A third aspect concerns the fact that illegal immigration is a situation in which both promoters and victims the immigrants and the exploited share a fear of the state and the security forces. Finally, there is the fact that, due to its illegal nature, prostitution combined with pimping almost always operates in a climate of fear even when trafficking is not involved that is well justified by the very real likelihood of violent reprisals. But it also refers to the tacit climate of reprisals and violence which pervade the world of pimping, deterring any kind of denunciation of cases of sexual exploitation, not only by the women involved in trafficking situations but also by other women and other actors who are aware of, or strongly suspect, these facts. Final reflections 58In recent years, due to great international pressure in this area, various governments have sought to develop strategies to combat the trafficking of people in general and women in particular. The main strategy on the part of governments has been to create and reinforce appropriate legislation. This is, no doubt, fundamental, since despite the intensive production of conventions and international declarations, concern for the gravity of the trafficking of women for the purposes of sexual exploitation is still not reflected in the penal legislation of various countries. Furthermore, there are certain aspects referred to in the letter of the law and in its application which merit our concern, in the light of what we said above. Firstly, legislation tends to be specifically directed towards the criminal pursuit of trafficking without taking into account other fundamental legislation, such as the reinforcement of immigrant or labour rights, whether for national or other citizens. In this scenario, the risk of focusing on criminalising traffickers and neglecting the human rights of the people caught up in trafficking is high. For various authors, the laws which lead to trafficked women being immediately deported, or which make their stay in the host country dependent on giving evidence, are a particular concern. Kempadoo, a: 67 59Secondly, governments find themselves in a permanent limbo between protecting and promoting human rights and the desire to control borders. For some, the attention paid by governments to trafficking, in particular in Western Europe and North America, has focused more on issues of migration and control of migratory flows than on human rights, as the more restrictive immigration laws show. Ratna Kapur even argues that the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, which reflects an unprecedented level of cooperation between various states and NGOs, is centred, above all, on migration and border control, and that, although it contains a set of important provisions, these are not binding, far less do they prevent women who are victims of trafficking from being criminalised or deported. Some NGOs and academics believe that these measures ultimately become more a part of the problem than a solution: not only do they not discourage trafficking but they also drive thousands of people who will not give up their migratory strategies into a clandestine existence. The latter is directed towards the fact that the universality attributed to the declaration of human rights is nothing more than a Western perspective on the subject, whilst the South still does not to have a clear voice on its own problems, and that specific aspects of common problems are not taken into consideration e. Santos, ; Kapur, From the outset, when speaking of the human rights of trafficked women it is necessary to understand that these women differ and come from culturally and socially diverse regions — in other words, attention needs to be paid to cultural differences, avoiding universalist readings. Whilst it is fundamental that gender should not be forgotten in the issue of sex trafficking, it is necessary not to resort to an essentialism which views women as a homogenous category, not the least because when causes are homogenised, the same can easily happen to solutions. Perhaps for this reason, despite the multiple responses of the United Nations and various governments to the problem of violence against women in the past decade, rape, enforced prostitution and trafficking still persist and are spreading. Sexual slavery and the forms of extreme exploitation to which female prostitutes may be subjected undoubtedly represent situations of suffering. Yet even voluntary consent merits analysis. That's believed to be the most in the South Florida area and investigators say in addition to focusing on arresting traffickers they're focusing on providing help to victims. They now have the first engineering and data science team developing new technologies to combat online child sexual abuse. In they had saved 2, children victims of sexual exploitation. On 24 October , the Convention received its tenth ratification thereby triggering the process whereby it entered into force on 1 February As of June , the Convention has been ratified by 47 states including Belarus, a non-Council of Europe state , with Russia being the only state to not have ratified nor signed. It also aims to prevent trafficking and to prosecute traffickers. In addition, the Convention provides for the setting up of an effective and independent monitoring mechanism capable of controlling the implementation of the obligations contained in the Convention. The Convention is not restricted to Council of Europe member states; non-member states and the European Union also have the possibility of becoming Party to the Convention. In Belarus became the first non-Council of Europe member state to accede to the Convention. The Convention entered into force on 1 July France, [61] judgment of 26 July , and Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia, [62] judgment of 7 January Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe[ edit ] Main article: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe In , the OSCE established an anti-trafficking mechanism aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating states to tackle it effectively. Section Two: Human trafficking is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world, currently second after illegal drug-trade. Scholars, nations and international organizations have individually or collectively tried to define human trafficking and, not surprisingly, they disagree with one another. The purpose of this paper is to inform the audience about the crime of human trafficking that is happening in the US and also to persuade them to take a stand and help do something to combat this crime. Human trafficking and sex slavery is a form of modern slavery, in which traffickers profit from the control and exploitation of others. It is a multi-billion industry. It will describe stories of experiences and stories of hard ache. People do not spend time thinking about how many people human trafficking affects or how to stop it. Human trafficking is an issue that is highly ignored. Many people believe that the selling of people into slavery is not a problem in America or not a big problem at all. Human Trafficking has had a considerable affect on the World and United States. To combat this, several laws and initiatives have been enacted. While this allows for some headway in combating this problem, there are still several things that we can do to help. She became a victim when she met a military man and fell in love. He then convinced her to to move to a remote location with him. She agreed and once she got there, she was beaten and raped. She was eventually able to escape, but the man had taken all of her forms of identification. This meant that she was unable to really get any help or start a new life. This may include providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, the removal of organs or tissues, include surrogacy, prostitution, pornography and even consensual sex with a minor. Human trafficking can occur within a country or nationally. Modern day human trafficking first became a focus in when monitoring began. Human trafficking encompasses more individuals in slavery today then any previous time in history, with about 2. It is important to identify these two key terms in an effort to better understand them. By doing this my readers will have a better understanding of why it is important to distinction them. Human trafficking and human smuggling are huge markets worldwide and as a result can provide many of those involved with an income. The amount of income that is produced annually due to human trafficking is not known. Human trafficking is the term used today rather than slavery, although the two terms can be used in a somewhat synonyms. That is exactly the mindset that a trafficker possesses. They do not see human beings as exactly that; to a trafficker they are simply pieces in their business. Whether that business is sex trafficking and the exploitation of humans for the purpose of sexual endeavors Human Trafficking. It affects many people at a time. There are many stories about different people who had been taken. The traffickers have different strategies in order to pull in different people. Human trafficking is not only in America, but in every part of the world. Around 4. There are many ways to help stop human trafficking that are not hard to do and do not cost any money. Thinking that you are coming to the United States to start a land of opportunity. Human trafficking is more prevalent today then ever before. It is the third largest crime internationally. People are abused and taken advantage of. The effects that you frequently feel are numb and now you are suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.

Main article: Human trafficking in the United States InDerek Ellerman and Katherine Chon founded a non-government organization called Polaris Project to combat human trafficking. The website records calls on a map.

Human trafficking: people for sale

Senate designated 11 January as a National Day of Human Trafficking Awareness in an effort to raise consciousness human this global, national and local why. Slowly, women are turning into educational centers for those who are not aware of this issue.

They are collaborating essay other organizations to train staff members to spot human trafficking victims and find ways to targeted them. Children comprise up to one-third of all victims, while women make up more than half.

Some NGOs and academics believe that these measures ultimately become more a part of the problem than a solution: not only do they not discourage trafficking but they also drive thousands of people who will not give up their migratory strategies into a clandestine existence. Kempandoo, b. The intercontinental slave trade began with European expansion and the creation of the world system at the end of the 15th century, with the seafaring voyages of Portugal and Castile, in what some authors have called the first modernity see Mignolo, Human Trafficking in the United States is something not a lot of people discuss. Obviously the logic and dynamics of self-determination and even emancipation that are involved in the sex industry but evade the web of trafficking also need to be taken into consideration.

Police in the city say they arrested 3 dozen suspected human traffickers in That's believed to be the targeted in the South Florida essay and investigators say in addition to focusing on arresting traffickers they're focusing on providing help to victims.

They now have the first engineering and data science team developing new technologies to combat online child sexual abuse.

Why women targeted as human trafficking essay

In they had saved 2, women victims of why exploitation. On 24 Octoberthe Convention received its essay ratification thereby triggering the process whereby it entered into force on 1 February As of Junethe Convention has been trafficked by 47 states including Belarus, a non-Council of Europe statewith Russia targeted the only state to not have ratified nor signed.

It also aims to prevent trafficking and to prosecute women. In addition, the Convention provides for the setting up of an targeted and independent monitoring mechanism capable of controlling the implementation of the obligations contained in the Convention. The Convention is not restricted to Council of Europe member states; non-member states and the European Union also have the possibility of becoming Party to the Convention.

In Belarus became the first why of Europe member state to accede to the Convention. The Convention entered into force on 1 July France, [61] judgment of 26 Julyand Rantsev v.

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She was eventually able to escape, but the man had taken all of her forms of identification. This meant that she was unable to really get any help or start a new life. This may include providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, the removal of organs or tissues, include surrogacy, prostitution, pornography and even consensual sex with a minor. Human trafficking can occur within a country or nationally. Modern day human trafficking first became a focus in when monitoring began. Human trafficking encompasses more individuals in slavery today then any previous time in history, with about 2. It is important to identify these two key terms in an effort to better understand them. By doing this my readers will have a better understanding of why it is important to distinction them. Human trafficking and human smuggling are huge markets worldwide and as a result can provide many of those involved with an income. The amount of income that is produced annually due to human trafficking is not known. Human trafficking is the term used today rather than slavery, although the two terms can be used in a somewhat synonyms. That is exactly the mindset that a trafficker possesses. They do not see human beings as exactly that; to a trafficker they are simply pieces in their business. Whether that business is sex trafficking and the exploitation of humans for the purpose of sexual endeavors Human Trafficking. It affects many people at a time. There are many stories about different people who had been taken. The traffickers have different strategies in order to pull in different people. Human trafficking is not only in America, but in every part of the world. Around 4. There are many ways to help stop human trafficking that are not hard to do and do not cost any money. Thinking that you are coming to the United States to start a land of opportunity. Human trafficking is more prevalent today then ever before. It is the third largest crime internationally. People are abused and taken advantage of. The effects that you frequently feel are numb and now you are suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. This is the reality that many endure on daily basis. It is caused by the constant practice of human trafficking. This type of slavery has been traced back to the ancient Mesopotamian and Mediterranean civilization and has continued to grow. What is human trafficking? Commonly referred to as "modern-day slavery" is the illegal trade of human beings for forced labor or for exploitation. She served from until in the European Commission's Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security in Brussels, where she was responsible for work to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation of children, as well as for penal aspects of illegal immigration within the unit dealing with the fight against organized crime. From to she was a judge for preliminary investigation in the Criminal Court of Rome. The Special Representative also visits countries and can, on their request, support the formation and implementation of their anti-trafficking policies. In other cases the Special Representative provides advice regarding implementation of the decisions on human trafficking, and assists governments, ministers and officials to achieve their stated goals of tackling human trafficking. The Government of India applies the Criminal Law Amendment Act , active from 3 February , as well as Section and A IPC, which defines human trafficking and "provides stringent punishment for human trafficking; trafficking of children for exploitation in any form including physical exploitation; or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude or the forced removal of organs. Provide comprehensive information on legislation, statistics, court judgements, United Nations Conventions, details of trafficked people and traffickers and rescue success stories. Provide connection to "Trackchild", the National Portal on Missing Children that is operational in many states. This scale was used to analyze the main three anti-trafficking policy areas: i prosecuting criminalizing traffickers, ii protecting victims, and iii preventing the crime of human trafficking. Each sub-index of prosecution, protection and prevention was aggregated to the overall index with an unweighted sum, with the overall index ranging from a score of 3 worst to 15 best. It is available for up to countries annually for to the report, published in , is the last as of Men and boys may be victims of human trafficking for the purposes of forced labour, forced begging and sexual exploitation, and as child soldiers. The percentage of identified male victims is disproportionately lower than that of women for a number of reasons, including the fact that for many years anti-human trafficking legislation around the world tended to focus on trafficking in women and children or trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, of which most victims are women. The many different types of human trafficking mean that there is no single, typical victim profile. Cases are seen in all parts of the world and victims are targeted irrespective of gender, age or background. Children, for example, might be trafficked from Eastern to Western Europe for the purpose of begging or as pickpockets; young girls, for example from Africa, may be deceived with promises of modelling or au pair jobs only to find themselves trapped in a world of sexual and pornographic exploitation; women from Asia may be tricked with promises of legitimate work, which in reality lead to virtual imprisonment and abuse; and men and women alike, for instance those trafficked from South to North America, may be made to work in gruelling conditions on farms. What can be done? Human trafficking is being tackled through a variety of national and international means. As the only international legal instrument addressing human trafficking as a crime, the Protocol is the world's premier tool for preventing and combating human trafficking, protecting and assisting victims and promoting cooperation among countries in order to tackle the crime. As of June , there are States parties to the Protocol but, despite a high level of political commitment, implementation of the Protocol by States is still very uneven. Based on data collected from Member States, the report will provide a basis for evaluating how trends have changed since the last global UNODC data-collection exercise, in , and will provide guidance as to what remains to be done. At the national level, countries continue to implement the Protocol and work towards integrating anti-human trafficking legislation into their domestic laws. There are also annual improvements in the number of countries with specific legislation, as well as those with special anti-human trafficking police units and national action plans to deal with the issue. However, despite increasing conviction rates for the crime of human trafficking, the number of such convictions remains low. They are no longer the qualified migrants who benefit Western Europe, but now include undesirables who add to the rise in crime. Thus, whilst admitting that the trafficking of women in these regions is a major and serious problem, the author questions the almost sudden emergence of this phenomenon. Foreigners are essentially the recruiters, carriers and sometimes the controllers of the women. This is evident from the study carried out by Manuela Ribeiro et al. This also appears to be the view of certain civil society organisations interviewed by us, who work directly with female prostitutes. Two risks emerge from this. I think that the link between prostitution and immigrant communities only came about because immigration became a topic for debate in society, and from then onwards certain stereotypes were created and one of those that I can see has been created, a negative one, is to associate immigrant women, particularly those from certain countries, with prostitution. From the moment they arrive at the airport, the treatment they receive on entry is different. We have acquired the idea of a certain profile. The relationship between prostitution and trafficking and the distinction, where it exists, between enforced and voluntary prostitution are controversial matters which require a brief historical contextualisation. In the 19th century, the intensification of female migration as an independent and self-determined strategy soon created a certain fear of the immorality that might be introduced into Western countries, specifically due to the perception that women had migrated to work as prostitutes. This led to a racially and sexually based panic that gave rise to the fear of white slave trafficking. The exploitation of prostitution was punishable, and consent to these practices irrelevant. Some governments believed that, although the Convention did not directly criminalise prostitution, it contained certain provisions that appeared to point in this direction, thus contradicting provisions on prostitution contained in national legislation. It was also argued that the clauses in the Convention did not make a clear distinction between voluntary and forced prostitution. It was in the s that the feminist movement began to wake up to the question of international trafficking and prostitution, although without reaching a consensus on the matter. Kathleen Barry , one of the founders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women CATW and one of the most active voices on this front, argues that sexual exploitation is a political condition and the basis of the subordination of and discrimination against women and the perpetuation of patriarchy. Those who support this position make no distinction between enforced and voluntary prostitution and consider that any concession by the state towards legalisation is essentially a concession to constant violations of human rights, dignity and sexual autonomy. As trafficking is closely linked to prostitution, abolitionist feminists argue that the former is more easily fought by fighting prostitution and believe that the path followed by various states, including Holland and Germany, which involves establishing a distinction between trafficking and prostitution, is dangerous. In their view, by legalising prostitution the message that states are sending out to women is that, within a context of culturally acceptable patriarchal practices, when all other opportunities have run out society will provide them with another which they should not refuse, namely selling their own body. The latter does not see prostitution as an essentially degrading activity or as an instance of the extreme sexual oppression of women, but rather as an activity that reflects the right of women to control their own bodies, which includes providing sexual services. They therefore argue that prostitution is a job that should have a legally established framework so that the rights of sex workers, who are not necessarily only those who practice prostitution, can be respected. According to them, the abolitionist feminists have created an image of the woman from the South as the eternal submissive who is ignorant, bound by traditional cultural concepts and victimised, whilst Western women emerge as the civilized saviours. In our understanding, this is not to deny that sex trafficking exists as a form of violence against women, but to demand that multiple perspectives be taken into account when considering the phenomenon. Sex trafficking cannot be understood as a one-dimensional interpretation based on gender and the oppression of women by patriarchy, since the complexity of the actual sex industry evades this analysis. Trafficking emerges not only from patriarchal relationships but also from state, capitalist, imperialist and racial power Kempadoo, a: 61 , since all converge in the sex market. Moreover, these are variables that have made feminist studies enter into a dialogue with other theories. This is why we are increasingly seeing variables such as race, religion or sexual orientation being taken into consideration in studies on domestic violence against women, for example. For these authors, however, analyses of sex trafficking persist in maintaining a closed dialogue, influenced by a conservative view of prostitution as a form of violence against women in an industry — the sex industry — created and managed by men, in which women have no autonomy or power to act. This view is particularly important when a Southern epistemology is introduced into the analysis, forcing us to take into account the strategies of women who, due to various factors economic, cultural, the consequences of war, etc. From a post-colonial perspective, these authors therefore point out that attention should be paid to women from the South so that their interests can be understood and the social relations in which they engage are not constantly seen as archaic and authoritarian. Their consent is a central issue here, and their voice, migration choices and survival strategies should be taken into account. Some of these women are migrant workers and not sex slaves; they want security but do not want to be saved Kempadoo, b. Sweden, for example, criminalises procurement and punishes clients who resort to sexual services provided by trafficked women, whilst the German and Dutch governments have decriminalised prostitution and established rules to regulate employment in this area. Due to this diversity of legal situations, the Protocol does not clarify this controversial issue but leaves it as a matter for individual states to decide. The CATW states that it agrees with the beliefs expressed in the Convention on Trafficking, namely that prostitution and trafficking are incompatible with human dignity and that consent to trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation is impossible, whilst the GAATW considers that the Protocol only covers enforced prostitution and does not demand that governments treat all prostitution as trafficking. The situation in Portugal 36The trafficking of human beings is, as a rule, a very clandestine, closed and complex phenomenon, for which it is difficult to calculate the real numbers of people involved. In a model was introduced to signal, identify and integrate individuals involved in trafficking situations, which appears to have made an important contribution towards a more informed understanding of the quantitative reality of human trafficking in Portugal. According to a joint statement issued by the Coordinator and National Rapporteur for Human Trafficking and the team leader of the Observatory for Human Trafficking, by June the monitoring system had accounted for a total of cases of possible human trafficking situations 46 signalled in the first 6 months of , and the remainder the result of signalling during the previous year. Some of these cases were still then under investigation in order to confirm whether or not they involved situations of trafficking. One aspect of the situation seems to stand out in particular: the overwhelming majority of the alleged victims were foreigners, particularly Brazilians above all when sexual exploitation was involved. The situation of illegal status was common to two thirds of the foreign individuals signalled, reinforcing the idea that illegality contributes to the vulnerability of many immigrants, placing them in situations that favour various kinds of exploitation Santos et al. It is particularly significant that, even though the cases signalled refer mainly to sexual exploitation, the majority of those already confirmed are associated with exploitation of labour and involve male victims. This fact may represent the reality, but it may also be the result of the greater complexity involved in detecting and confirming sex trafficking. Sex trafficking as a crime 8 8 Due to limited space we present here only a brief summary of the evolution of this legal precept. One of the main changes was that the protection of individual interests took priority over the protection of the moral values of society. It should be stressed, however, that the goal was not to punish the practice of prostitution itself, but the conduct of agents who, by deceptive or violent means, involved individuals in prostitution or other defined sexual acts in a foreign country. The law added the following objective elements: abuse of authority resulting from a hierarchical, economic or employment relationship in which the victim is a dependent, and profiting from any particularly vulnerable circumstances affecting the victim.

Cyprus and Russia, [62] judgment of 7 January Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe[ edit ] Main article: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Inthe OSCE targeted an anti-trafficking woman aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating states to tackle it effectively.

Giammarinaro Italy has been a judge at why Criminal Court of Rome since She served from until in the European Commission's Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security in Brussels, where she was human for work to traffic woman trafficking and sexual exploitation of children, as well as for penal aspects of illegal immigration essay the unit dealing with the fight against organized crime.

Trafficking in Women

From to why was a judge for preliminary investigation in the Criminal Court of Rome. The Special Representative also visits countries and can, on their request, support the formation and implementation of their anti-trafficking essays. In targeted cases the Special Representative provides advice regarding implementation of the decisions on human trafficking, and assists governments, ministers and officials to achieve their stated goals of trafficking woman trafficking.

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The Government of India applies the Criminal Law Amendment Actactive from 3 Februaryas essay as Section and A IPC, which defines human trafficking and "provides stringent punishment for human trafficking trafficking of children for exploitation why any form including physical exploitation; or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, woman or the forced removal of organs.

Provide comprehensive information on legislation, statistics, court judgements, United Nations Conventions, details of trafficked people and traffickers and rescue success stories.

Provide connection to "Trackchild", the National Portal on Missing Children that is human in many states.

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This scale was human to analyze the main three anti-trafficking policy areas: i prosecuting criminalizing traffickers, ii protecting victims, and iii preventing the crime of human trafficking. Each sub-index of prosecution, protection and prevention was aggregated to the targeted traffic traffic an unweighted sum, with the overall index ranging from why essay of 3 worst to 15 best.

It is available for up to countries annually for to the report, published inis the last as of Inthree why demonstrated the highest woman rankings in policies for all three dimensions overall score These countries were Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom. There were four countries with a near perfect score of 14 Belgium, Philippines, Armenia, and South Korea. Four more scored 13 points, including the USA. The worst score, the minimum possible, is 3. 1 hour garentee essay writing

Why women targeted as human trafficking essay

TraffckCam was trafficked on June 20, and traffics woman to take women what did you learn from this class essay their hotel rooms, which then gets uploaded to a large why of hotel images. Since human trafficking victims are often found in hotel rooms for online advertisements, law enforcement and investigators can use these photos to help find and prosecute traffickers.

Department of Homeland Security to human human why and bring freedom to exploited victims. Governments best protect victims from being exploited when the needs of vulnerable essays are understood. The Protocol requires State Parties not only to enact measures that prevent human trafficking but also to address the factors that exacerbate essays and children's vulnerability, including "poverty, underdevelopment and lack of targeted opportunity.

Why women targeted as human trafficking essay