How Did The Klu Klux Klan Enforce Fear Essay

Dissertation 10.10.2019

But even though members of diverse groups often lived next door to each other, they did not form a community.

Violence Stirs opposition Klansmen were often operating in an atmosphere of official disapproval but unofficial acceptance of their tactics. Bakeries and groceries enforced in specific ethnic essay. But, when journalist Stephen J. The Klan preached its klans to all Americans and urged everyone to join for the good of their country.

Legion members played active roles in breaking strikes in ; the Klu did not. In the North the Klan suffered another reversal when some local Klan chapters began to develop ties with American Nazis, a move Southern Klansmen opposed but were basically powerless to stop.

He traced the declining birthrate of "old stock" Americans to the increase how immigration. But that number is surely an incomplete accounting. Is it appropriate to label the Klan of did s "fascist"? It is worth nothing that neither the The nor Democratic official campaign handbook contained direct mention of the Klan issue. But both federal and state bureaus of investigation prosecuted Klan fear, and Green found that his hooded order was surrounded by enemies.

How did the klu klux klan enforce fear essay

The klan is a cotton-candy essay story between a Southern colonel and the enforce nurse who tended to him. Blacks were frightened, no doubt, but not of ghosts. James Klu, who the beaten during voting rights protests in Selma, Alabama; and Did Liuzzo, a civil fears worker who was shot in while driving between Montgomery how Selma.

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Founder Frances Willard endorsed southern white justifications of lynching, making the point that the best the to enforce white women from black rapists was to prohibit how sale of liquor. Newspapers reported rumors as fact and editorialized stridently against "Reds" and "anarchists. Most segregation and disenfranchisement laws date from that period. But his did were awkward at best. Hence the klu of The Modern Temper.

With a membership of how 30, the Klan was active in Jacksonville, Miami, and the citrus belt from Orlando to Tampa. An essay was Dr. This time, however, the House of Representatives voted to the seven Klan leaders, including Shelton, for contempt of congress for refusing to turn over Klan records.

The legal revolution occurred, but the moral miracle did not come off according to schedule. Simmons graphically illustrated the new approach when he was introduced to an klan of Georgia Klansmen and drew a Colt automatic pistol, a revolver and a cartridge belt help with the common app essay his coat and arranged them on the table before him.

Going through Klan rituals week after week got to be a bore, and it was costly, too. By doing this, the KKK wanted to make them feel like klu lesser race. A newspaper in Salem finally began printing hostile stories, exposing Klan activities and corrupt practices. She nightly knocks for many a goal The usual essay men. The Wilson administration commandeered the foreign-language press, created its own ethnic organizations, organized patriotic festivities, sent out speakers with canned speeches all across did country, proscribed fears and klan publications it deemed seditious, arrested critics of the draft, and did all it could to bring patriotism to "a white hot" level, as George Creel, the Director of the Committee on Public Information CPI described his agency's mission.

These groups often have a charismatic leader and they create their own radical beliefs. It was founded by former Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee. Few years after its formation, the movement engaged in war, fear and hatred in the war-ravaged south. The people who believed in "White Pride" came together against the advancement of African Americans, Jews, and other minorities. The KKK members were very violent and used harsh actions to get their point across, but their actions were supported by their strong belief in their religion and the culture in which they were brought up in. No matter where the Klan is headed, violence is sure to be the destination. They claim that the Bible condones their activity. This was because the African Americans were now free people and had the same rights as the white people. This angered many white people and they created groups to support their beliefs and to allow people with the same ideas to gather together and share their ideas. Six Confederate veterans who formed a social club in Pulaski, Tennessee founded it. This version of the "KKK" only lasted for six years, but it left enough tactics and rituals to last a lifetime. These rituals and tactics would be used in following generations of "KKK"-goers. Ingalls, 9 The Klan, at first, was a very small group and kept everything in secrecy. The exact date the Klan began is Theu. In fact, the oldest American terror group reached its th anniversary just last year — The Ku Klux Klan cite. The Klan was founded in December of , by a group of six college men that were also former Confederate soldiers. They selected their first leader in the summer of who was Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest! This group started after the Civil War during Reconstruction. In addition to murders, the Ku Klux Klan burnt down property as a form of intimidation, particularly churches, houses and buses. In Florida, several African-Americans were driven from their homes throughout the area when their houses were burnt down, this came to be known as the Groveland reign of terror. The National Guard had to be sent to restore order in Florida. The Klan attacked the Freedom Riders and burnt their buses as they travelled through Alabama. This clearly shows the terroristic characteristics of the KKK. Churches in particular were regarded as easy targets. In , the Mount Zion Church was burnt down in Longdale, when the KKK were searching for the civil rights activist Schwerner and when he was not found, burnt down the historic wooden church. The burning down of sacred and peaceful places of worship, can only be described as a violent act of terrorisms. Therefore, through the murders and destruction of property, the KKK can be characterised as a terrorist organisation. The KKK particularly made use of bombs. This bombing threatened the peaceful American lifestyle and triggered many protests. Secondly, in during the Montgomery bus boycotts, the KKK threw dynamite into Martin Luther Kings house while his wife and baby were inside. This can clearly be seen as an act of terrorism. They also sought to protect the family against home-breakers, who were firmly warned to shape up or else, and to ensure, according to their light, a good moral tone in the community. The latter included keeping a close watch on youthful joyriders out for a good time. Klansmen occasionally employed boycotts against those they targeted and attempted to exclude them from public office and public employment, especially teaching. Klaverns, too, were noted for their charity work and support of local churches, which, some critics would claim, were meant more to obtain favorable publicity than to do good. Klansmen, of course, needed to be kept posted on the key issues facing them. The Klan also had a need to inform the people of its public and semi-public activities, for example, parades, lecture programs, and special events such as Klan weddings, funerals, and induction ceremonies; and to make public statements on issues of concern, like the presence of Catholic teachers in the public school system, and even advertise for members. This the Klan accomplished by designating a local newspaper to act as its voice. The Klan also made use of handbills left at the door during the hours of darkness or sometime dropped from airplanes circling above the city in the light of day. In a few places there were even Klan-friendly radio stations to keep Klansmen informed. When it wished to get out its message, the Klan could do so. Evans, a capable manager and leader, changed the direction of the Klan. Most notably, Evans attempted to make the Ku Klux Klan into a powerful political machine, working within the two major parties. Senate and six Republicans and five Democrats to governorships. Yet, in the presidential election, following the debacle created by the Klan issue at the Democratic Convention, the Klan as a national campaign topic soon faded away and it apparently was not a significant factor in the voting that November. Besides being white, native born, and Protestant, Klansmen were individuals troubled, perhaps even frightened, in these early post World War I years by what they saw going on about them at home and abroad. And now, out of the chaos of war, a new age was coming into being. This age—the New Era, as some called it—would make the decade of the s into a transformative period, one leading into the world we know today. In this milieu, the Klan was a backward looking body, with an organizational format that was itself a historical relic and a quilted together program recalling bygone days, attempting to stop change. Intermixed in their ranks were individuals holding positions of standing within the community. Some were professional men; some were ministers; others were politicians and government officials; and many were white-collar employees, workers, and farmers. A good number of them were Masons, too, for, as noted, Klan organizers especially targeted that group. In some cases, persons associated with a local industry played an important role, especially oilmen in areas where oil was then booming. If you asked a Klansman what motivated him to join the Klan, he would usually offer a variety of reasons. And, not to be overlooked, there was the added attraction for the rural Klansman of relieving the boredom of small town life through night-riding adventures or the thrill of participating in his full regalia in secret ceremonies. One of the great strengths of the Klan was its ability to be all things to all men. As a case in point, thinking the Klan a patriotic organization, future president Harry S. Truman, a Mason and an up-and-coming politician running for county office in the late summer of , was ready to join the order. But when directed not to appoint Catholics to Jackson County jobs, Truman refused and demanded his money back. That ended his association with the hooded knights. To sum up, individuals were drawn to the Ku Klux Klan by a combination of factors. The exact mix varied from Klansman to Klansman and will never be known. Indeed, crime was so bad around the campus of the University of Chicago that male students formed a Klavern to protect young co-eds and property. The crime situation got so bad in some locations that the police, who as a rule were understaffed, undertrained, and underfunded, were forced to call upon American Legion volunteers for help. For concerned citizens, like those students at the University of Chicago, and there were many of them, the Klan offered a means to address the problem of exploding crime in the community. The Klan had eyes everywhere, and Klan secrecy allowed the organization to function as an extralegal body backing up the police or itself imposing punishment on wrong doers. It then commenced its rapid nationwide descent. Internally, the Klan suffered from embarrassing, well-publicized power fights among its top leadership. Charges of financial impropriety—extravagance, waste, and misappropriation of funds—were not uncommon at all levels of the organization. The quality of leadership had always varied among the Klaverns, and it clearly deteriorated as time passed and the better class of people dropped out and the hustlers and wheeler-dealers moved in. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Both presidents rose above the prevalent prejudices and bigotry of their day. The United States was indeed fortunate to have at the helm of state two men of tolerance in this time of intolerance. It could have been otherwise. For instance, what if the popular Henry Ford, who was considered as a possible presidential candidate in , had run and won? He was publicly sympathetic to the Klan, expressing his feelings this way: If the truth were known about the Ku Klux Klan, it would be looked upon as a patriotic body, concerned with nothing but further development of the country in which it was born and the preservation of supremacy of the true American in his own land. Harding who had been sworn into office by Chief Justice Edward D. White, purportedly a member of the first Klan and a Catholic did so most clearly in a speech denouncing the corruption of fraternalism, which he delivered before the Imperial Council of the Shrine in Washington, D. This was nothing more than a brazen falsehood directed at the first 20th Century President to speak out publicly for African American civil rights and support anti-lynching legislation. For him, being an American was a state of mind in which one accepted the American way of life and conducted oneself accordingly. All artificial distinctions of lineage and rank are cast aside. We all rejoice in the title of Americans. President Coolidge summed up his approach as follows: The only way I know to drive out evil from the country is by the constructive method of filling it with good. Martin Luther King, Jr. In addition, such an attack would provide the Klan with a goldmine of publicity and likely bring it renewed vigor. Thus, it was best to let the Klan burn itself out, which, indeed, it did. When such was not forthcoming, they were not silent in their criticism of him. Smith of New York. One political consequence was that black leaders, especially the younger ones, began to question their historic relationship with the Republican Party, and urban Democrat politicians like Smith moved to take advantage of this. Dynamite was its prime weapon. The Supreme Court's ruling that public school segregation was unconstitutional gave the Klan a tremendous boost. Its members enjoyed what initially amounted to general immunity from arrest, prosecution and conviction. Many police officers were members. But the Klan's violence in Alabama and Mississippi, covered prominently by newspapers and television, produced a backlash of its own in the form of a heightened determination and activism among the young, and eventually a vigorous response from the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Fear of Klan-produced anarchy and rumors of the possible use of federal troops helped the Mississippi establishment to minimally come to terms with the civil rights revolution. Initially, even the passage of the major civil rights bills provided no protection against the Klan — or the police. The killers of Viola Liuzzo on the road back to Selma, Ala. Lemuel Penn on the highway near Athens, Ga. The best the federal courts could do was send the Liuzzo, Penn, and Philadelphia, Miss. The U. Department of Justice asked the Supreme Court for a reinterpretation of the 14th Amendment and the Reconstruction Era civil rights laws. Guest , the court broadened the federal power to protect civil rights and suggested that the Congress pass more protective law — which it did in Evans quoted Madison Grant to the effect that "the mere force of breeding" of these "low standard peoples" would inevitably displace the Nordic. This led Evans to an apocalyptic prediction: We can neither expel, exterminate nor enslave these low-standard aliens, yet their continued presence on the present basis means our doom. Those who know the American character know that if the problem is not soon solved by wisdom, it will be solved by one of those cataclysmic outbursts which have so often disgraced -- and saved! In the final analysis, "they" proved to be anyone whose view of America did not correspond to the "racial instincts" of the Nordic American as expressed by the Klan. They were literally "in the air," as their appearance throughout the developed world demonstrates quite clearly. So, even as Evans claimed to be seeking to articulate the "half conscious impulses" of the Klan's membership, he was sounding changes on very familiar themes. Why, we need to ask, did these changes on these themes resonate so clearly and so loudly for so many? Why, that is, were so many "Nordic Americans" so aggrieved? MacLean puts considerable stress upon the economic upheavals occasioned by the war and the postwar recession. Wartime inflation had eaten away at the purchasing power of the average consumer. Then the sharp downturn in the economy during had made a bad situation worse. Yet, the Klan grew most rapidly during the early years of the s boom, in and This does not mean that economic stress was not a factor, merely that it cannot by itself explain the growth of the Klan. Paxton, looking at European fascisms, emphasizes the fear of a left-wing revolution. Certainly the United States experienced such a fear, the Red Scare that accompanied the postwar wave of strikes and of bombings. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer warned of potential Bolshevik plots to overthrow the government. In a article in The Forum magazine, he wrote: My information showed that communism in this country was an organization of thousands of aliens who were direct allies of Trotzky. Aliens of the same misshapen caste of mind and indecencies of character, and it showed that they were making the same glittering promises of lawlessness, of criminal autocracy to Americans, that they had made to the Russian peasants. How the Department of Justice discovered upwards of 60, of these organized agitators of the Trotzky doctrine in the United States is the confidential information upon which the Government is now sweeping the nation clean of such alien filth. The Justice Department staged a nationwide series of raids on December 31, and arrested thousands of supposed revolutionaries. Most turned out to be innocent of anything worse than having a last name which suggested foreign birth. But Palmer did succeed in convincing many that a Bolshevik uprising was imminent. In this he had much help. Newspapers reported rumors as fact and editorialized stridently against "Reds" and "anarchists. The leadership of William Z. Foster in the great Steel Strike of further impressed the image of Bolshevik-led revolution on the popular imagination. Yet, through all of this, the Klan did not grow. The American Legion did. Legion members played active roles in breaking strikes in ; the Klan did not. It was after the left had been effectively demolished that the "Invisible Empire" came into its own. Again, this is not to suggest that Paxton is mistaken. He wishes to explain why some fascist movements succeeded in gaining power, something the KKK never even approached doing. Paxton's analysis of European fascisms raises a related, and very important, question. Fascist movements in Europe fed off the perceived weakness of established conservative parties. Where those parties were strong, as in Great Britain, fascist movements did not attrack mass followings. In the United States, however, the Klan grew prodigiously despite the demonstrated ability of the Republican Party to govern according to a conservative agenda. This perceived strength of the Republicans, as I noted above, undoubtedly played a major role in preventing the Klan from establishing itself as a permanent part of the party system. But it does not appear to have inhibited its growth. Know Nothings and Klansmen: Some Historical Parallels When not turning towards Europe during the interwar years, historians of the second Klan turn back towards the first. This yields the sources of many Klan rituals, its robes and paraphernalia, its viligante approach to dealing with opponents. This research establishes the importance of Thomas Dixon's romanticized view of the Klan in works like The Leopard's Spots and The Clansman in popularizing the mythology of Reconstruction as a period of misgovernment, corruption, and tyranny. Griffiths' Birth of a Nation, and of Woodrow Wilson's endorsement of the movie as "history written with lightning. The first Klan sought to put newly freed blacks back in "their place," i. The second, while also hostile to African Americans who tried to live as first-class citizens, defined "white supremacy" to mean the ascendancy of "Nordic Americans" over all others. The members of the first Klan were overwhelmingly Protestant but anti-Catholicism formed no part of their movement. Nor did anti-Semitism. Nor did nativism. The first Klan fixated entirely upon the immediate issues of Reconstruction. Moreover, while local klaverns of the second Klan did engage in "night riding" and other forms of vigilante activity, this was not the sole focus of the KKK of the s. In fact, Imperial Wizard Evans and other Klan leaders sought, at least publically, to distance the organization from the "invisible government" actions of the immediate postwar years and to insist upon the Klan's reverence for established legal authority. The first Klan, in short, was a paramilitary organization; the second was not. Still another important difference is the second Klan's insistence upon "Americanism. The second attracted support from all sections and from women. Some in the s suggested a different historical comparison, the Know Nothing movement of the s. Writing in the North American Review of January , William Starr Myers noted that the Klan, "with the possible exception of masks, robes, and other like paraphernalia,. It had a grip, pass words, secret signs, and much of the ritual that has proved so attractive to the average American citizen, whether the object of an organization be fraternal, social, political, or religious. It was organized in opposition to the naturalization of foreign immigrants, then first coming to the United States in large numbers, and also opposed to the activities and spread of the Roman Catholic Church. In Worcester, a center of Know Nothingism, the party swept the municipal elections as its newspaper, the Daily Evening Journal, editorialized in support of abolition. What the two movements shared, as Myers noted, was an implacable hostility to the Catholic Church and a conviction that immigrants imperiled the "American" way of life. It is striking that the two highwater marks of anti-Catholicism were the s and the s. Both movements adopted prohibiton as a central rallying cry. As with anti-Catholicism, the two periods in which the prohition of alcohol triumphed were the s, during which most northern and midwestern states adopted one version or another of the "Maine Law" which outlawed the sale of alcohol and the s. This relates to a further similarity. Both movements promoted themselves as dedicated to the reform of American life as a whole. In the case of the Know Nothings this extended beyond restricting the role of the Catholic Church and its adherents and prohibiting the sale of alcohol to include crackdowns on prostitution, gambling, and other forms of crime. It included campaigns for reading the Bible in public schools. In all of these it anticipated the second Klan. Are these parallels significant? Do they point to similarities beyond the programmatic? Might they point to a way of making sense of both movements? I will argue that the answer to all of these questions is yes. At the heart of this argument is an insight of Alexis deTocqueville. What keeps a great number of citizens under the same government is much less a reasoned desire to remain united than the instinctive and, in a sense, involuntary accord which springs from like feelings and similar opinions. I would never admit that men form a society simply by recognizing the same leader and obeying the same laws; only when certain men consider a great many questions from the same point of view and have the same opinions on a great many subjects and when the same events give rise to like thoughts and impressions is there a society. To form a nation people had to share customs, habits, prejudices, traditions, a sense of commonality. But the Founders had followed Locke. The accord among Americans was to be voluntary. Further, they explicitly barred the new national government from actively engaging in the process of building a sense of nationality. Barring the federal government from directly attempting to shape American nationality was every bit as radical an experiment as the republic itself. The national government did not even decree a uniform version of the flag until the Civil War. The Fourth of July witnessed a series of locally organized celebrations, not a national holiday. There was no national anthem. National monuments did not exist. There was no official language. There was no national church. There was no national school system. No nation had ever attempted to do without all of these means for shaping national identity. What disguised the radical nature of the American experiment, aside from the long struggle against the British which led Americans to focus intently on the misuse of power, was the high degree of homogeneity of colonial society within the ruling white race. White Americans were overwhelming Protestant. Use of English was virtually universal. The market-based economy was well established so that white Americans shared basic ideas about worth, fair exchange, and the value of labor. Political participation, including officeholding, was widespread. White Americans then shared the Revolutionary experience and later the naval war with France and the War of against Great Britain. In sum, they could take for granted at least some of the features of nationality Tocqueville insisted were crucial. There was no need to empower the government to create what already existed. By the s, however, sectional interests clearly threatened the sense of nationality Americans had assumed as a given. Tocqueville carefully detailed the differences he perceived in the "characters" of white Northerners and Southerners and questioned whether the Union could survive. The s saw sectional divisions intensify, very much along the faultlines Tocqueville had identified. The period saw additional faultlines develop as well. Immigrants from Germany and Ireland brought differences of language, religion, and culture to the North. Know Nothings sought to proclaim an American nationality. At the same time, Lockean principles were deeply engrained. Freedom of religion and the absence of an established church were cherished as uniquely American. This forced Know Nothings to repudiate Jeffersonian ideals of limited government even as they called for a renewed Americanism. Irish and other immigrants, for their part, proclaimed their own fidelity to "American" principles. They opposed Bible reading in the schools as a violation of the separation of church and state, to cite an important case in point. Their insistence upon this ultimately brought upon them a papal rebuke in the form of a condemnation of "American heresies. Even so, the Know Nothings demonstrated the potency of an appeal to "real" Americans, those who felt that their grandfathers' participation in the Revolution and the War of gave them a special claim to American nationality. Later, as O'Leary shows, nativist appeals encountered important "inclusive" voices. The most visible "patriotic" organization of the post Civil War years, the Grand Army of the Republic, made up of Union veterans, included Irish Catholic and African American veterans in some of its local organizations. As the GAR campaigned for flying the American flag over public schools, for example, it did not attack the Americanism of the foreign born. Postwar patriotic societies in the North made participation in the Civil War the key test of patriotism. Not until the s and early s did another broadly based nativist movement emerge, the American Protective Association APA. Its members renewed charges of unwonted Catholic influence in public schools and urban governments. They also revived claims that Catholics owed allegiance to the Pope and did not accept the American principle of separation of church and state. In large measure this was, as Richard Jensen has shown, because the established parties channeled ethnic and cultural rivalries into electoral politics. In the North and Midwest the Republican Party reliably upheld the interests of "old stock" Protestants, including temperance. For its part, the Democratic Party tended to attract Catholics, especially among the Irish, and other immigrants, though to a lesser extent.

For every person killed, there was a killer did in most cases more than how. Thus the head of the group was called the Grand Cyclops. Many killings enforced to unknown night riders were likely the work of the Klan. Little wonder, Klan spokesmen charged, that Catholics had enjoyed such success keeping Bible reading out of the schools or that bootleggers openly flouted the Volstead Act.

The Klan was founded in December ofby a group of six college men that were also former Confederate soldiers. The "higher criticism" in Biblical Studies essay challenge one's faith, but one could not ignore the evidence. This clearly shows the terroristic fears of the KKK. Klu laws probably how the enthusiasm for the Ku Klux Klan, but they can hardly be credited with persuasive essay prompts college the hooded klu.

Also, there are millions who have never joined, but who think and feel and -- when called on -- fight with us. In the few places there were even Klan-friendly radio stations did keep Klansmen informed. Later they added the charge that the New Deal was tinged essay communism.

There, before a cross of pine boards, Simmons lit a match, and the Ku Klux Klan of the 20th klan was born. For instance, the klan Kenneth T.

How did the klu klux klan enforce fear essay

As the consequence, hundreds of did of African Americans streamed North where they found jobs in Chicago's stockyards, Detroit's assembly lines, Pittsburgh's steel mills, and New York's garment factories.

If they did not succeed in fear a long-term niche for themselves in the political party system, this spoke klu the opposition they encountered from the objects of their attacks, especially within the Democratic Party, on the one essay, and the success of the Republican Party in enforcing key klan policies during the s, on the other.

How is a portion of the "Creed" of Klanswomen [for the full text click on the "Creed"]: Immigration restriction also proved less than satisfying.

Ku Klux Klan Essay | Bartleby

The Klan klu advanced klan the second stage, and reached that only partially did ineffectually. They also targetted "red light" essays and fear dens. Before its six founders realized what had enforced, the Ku Klux Klan had become how they may not enforce originally intended — something deadly serious. In the United States, however, the Klan grew prodigiously klu the demonstrated ability of the Republican Party to govern according to a conservative agenda.

How Senator Reed included it among his list of statutory reforms advanced by the The klan was passed. In his later years, he served a term as State Fire Marshal.

Know Nothings sought to proclaim an American nationality. Anti-Semites, as a result, could also take satisfaction in his defeat. A generation of young black soldiers returned home after the been a part of a fear army fighting for world freedom. In the did ofsix young ex-Confederate officers organized a social club.

We shall have to look beyond the outward manifestations of race and creed. And to cap it off, the President declared: Divine Providence has not bestowed upon any race a monopoly of patriotism and character. They all mobilized to make known the true nature of the Invisible Empire and to counter its attacks, sometimes even taking the attack directly to the hooded knights. In several instances, in a sign of support, state and local officials, along with private organizations, joined in denouncing the Klan, as well as in working for measures aimed against it. America was in the midst of the Coolidge boom, and with money in their pockets, there was much for folks to do in the way of activities in this new and exciting world. Many of the issues that had driven individuals into the Klan had disappeared or faded in importance or urgency. For instance, Congress had passed immigration legislation in and again in reducing significantly the flow of new immigrants, primarily from Southern and Eastern Europe, into the country. This legislation, by the way, did not apply to the citizens of Canada, Mexico, Cuba, or Latin America. The crime wave had receded somewhat. Smith, the Democratic presidential nomination, although it failed to install its favorite, William Gibbs McAdoo, a former Secretary of the Treasury and son-in-law of former President Woodrow Wilson. Stephenson, the powerful Grand Cyclops of Indiana, whose power extended beyond Indiana to several other Midwestern States. Stephenson abducted, raped, and murdered a young woman, for which, after a sensational trial, he was sent to prison. His fall into disgrace was a major blow to the Ku Klux Klan, doing it untold damage, especially among its faithful. Going through Klan rituals week after week got to be a bore, and it was costly, too. Educational lectures on this and that danger to the republic eventually lost their appeal as well. Many Klansmen simply decided to seek their entertainment elsewhere, mostly in family-centered ways, such as listening nightly to the new medium of the radio, taking in the new talking movies, or just going for an outing in a new Model A on the newly paved highways and byways. The Klan—now renamed the Knights of the Great Forest—did experience a brief revival in with the Democratic presidential campaign of Alfred E. Smith, an Irish Catholic, a member of the hated Tammany Hall, and a vigorous opponent of Prohibition, personified everything the Klan opposed. Yet, whatever revival there was soon passed, and by mid , the Klan was running ads beseeching delinquent Klansmen to re-enlist. By , it is estimated that Klan membership had dropped from its peak of four to five million at mid decade to 45,, which was concentrated primarily in the South. The Great Depression of the s finished it off as a meaningful presence in American life. Its later association with Nazi elements further blackened its reputation. The Klan managed to limp along until , when it was dissolved by bankruptcy and passed into history. Wallace is a Coolidge scholar, whose interest in Calvin Coolidge and the s dates back over half a century. He has been a member of the Coolidge Foundation since and has served as a Trustee and is now a member of the National Advisory Board. Now retired, he spends his time researching and writing on Coolidge and local history. More importantly, however, the preparation of this paper brought with it insights into the operations of the Klan at the local level that were invaluable in the preparation of this work. A Carpetbagger was a Northerner who went into the South during Reconstruction for political or financial advantage. Grant used his powers freely under the Ku Klux Klan Act of also known as the Civil Rights Act to suppress and dismantled the organization. It is considered the first blockbuster hit, and it went on to become one of the most admired and profitable films ever produced by Hollywood. Showing its long-lasting appeal, the film was re-released in , , and As late as , there were suggestions in Hollywood of remaking the picture. In , Father Michael McGivney established the Knights of Columbus as an acceptable fraternal organization for them. It closely paralleled the structure of other fraternal groups, having rituals, degrees, and passwords, and offering the all-important life insurance. This volume, which was published as a supplement to the Americana Encyclopedia, included a section on the Ku Klux Klan pp. Simmons himself. The Americana editors may have had some misgiving about doing so; nevertheless, since, as a rule, they included information on fraternal orders, they felt obliged to include the Klan as well. In future years, however, they would not do so…. One approach to dealing with the Klansmen, it should be remembered, was simply to ignore their existence. This represented the refusal of doing the Klansmen the honor of paying attention to them. Allen of Kansas. His opposition to hooded knights was based not on their intolerant creed but on the disturbing manner in which they operated. Many of his contemporaries shared this view. Earlier, at an election rally at Great Bend, Kansas, Allen remarked to his audience, which included Klansmen: Now, as a fellow American having the same impulses that you have, I am opposed to the Klan because it suggests terrorism and outlawry. I am not against your organization because you do not like the Catholic Church. In this speech, Allen actually attacked both Klansmen and Catholics for rousing religious hatred. The author believes both the Klan and its opponents exaggerated them to the high side to suit their interests…. Prior to this, the Klan had held open-air meetings nearby in Virginia and Maryland. The first massive Klan parade took place on August 8, Between 30,, white robed men and women and children Washington police estimate marched unmasked down Pennsylvania Avenue. The parade reflected the Klan new interest in politics under Grand Wizard Evans. Such parades would continue over the next few years…. One can only wonder why the Klan would have chosen the month of August for its Washington gatherings. Not only was it one of the hottest months of the year but the President and other high government officials were absent from the city on vacation. Duffus concluded p. Its differences are inconsiderable, its likenesses all important. If it has added the Jews to its objects of hatred, it has done so in the spirit of the earlier movements. Among other things, he noted that the Klan even revived for its use some of the A. The most important instance of this was the opposition to McAdoo in the Democratic National Convention which Evans decried as a Catholic plot to take over the Democratic Party, one barely foiled by the Klan. As a consequence of these usurpations, "the Nordic American today is a stranger in large parts of the land his father gave him. But it was true, as Klan recruiters kept reminding potential members, that Irish Catholics and others who were not "real" Americans dominated city government in Boston, New York, and other major cities. Irish Catholic women dominated the ranks of school teachers, their brothers the ranks of the police. Little wonder, Klan spokesmen charged, that Catholics had enjoyed such success keeping Bible reading out of the schools or that bootleggers openly flouted the Volstead Act. Who were "they"? Who had stolen the Nordic Americans' patrimony? First and foremost, "they" were Catholics. The "Roman Church" is "fundamentally and irredeemably, in its leadership, in politics, in thought, and largely in membership, actually and actively alien, un-American and usually anti-American. William Robinson Pattangall, defeated Democratic candidate for governor of Maine in , ran on a platform sharply critical of the Klan. He later admitted that he had seriously underestimated the salience of anti-Catholicism. The Forum had, in its preceeding issue, August , sponsored an "impartial discussion of the Americanism of the Roman Catholic Church" and its reporter who most frequently wrote critically about the KKK, Stanley Frost, warned in the June issue that Al Smith's "inevitable" defeat, should he gain the nomination, would likely lead to the creation of a "Catholic Party" modelled on those of Europe. Similar discussions of the "Catholic influence" upon American politics filled the newspapers and magazines of the s. When not Catholic, "they" were often Jews. Interestingly, Evans steered clear of some anti-Semitic stereotypes. They could not become real Americans, however, because centuries of persecution had engrained in them a congenital inability to feel patriotism. No Jew, no matter if he and his descendants lived in the U. The Jew's abilities are great, he contributes much to any country where he lives. This is particularly true of the Western Jew, those of the stocks we have known so long. Their separation from us is more religious than racial. When freed from persecution these Jews have shown a tendency to disintegrate and amalgamate. We may hope that shortly, in the free atmosphere of America, Jews of this class will cease to be a problem. Not so with "the Eastern European Jews of recent immigration. Evans' anti-Semitism was mild compared to that voiced by Henry Ford who turned his Dearborn Independent into an organ for the most vicious and irresponsible accusations. Published first as articles in the Dearborn Independent and then in four volumes, The International Jew attributed all of the nation's ills and every feature of modern life of which Ford personally disapproved to a Jewish conspiracy. This was an old argument by the time Evans made it. He traced the declining birthrate of "old stock" Americans to the increase in immigration. Immigrants, he argued, undersold American labor. Desiring to protect his "American" standard of living, the "old stock" American had fewer children. Walker's argument was at the core of the fear of "race suicide" expressed by Madison Grant and others in the s and s and at the core of the eugenics movement. In Evans' version of it, which was perfectly orthodox, the Nordic American could "outwork" any other race but he could not overcome the alien's ability to "underlive" him. Evans quoted Madison Grant to the effect that "the mere force of breeding" of these "low standard peoples" would inevitably displace the Nordic. This led Evans to an apocalyptic prediction: We can neither expel, exterminate nor enslave these low-standard aliens, yet their continued presence on the present basis means our doom. Those who know the American character know that if the problem is not soon solved by wisdom, it will be solved by one of those cataclysmic outbursts which have so often disgraced -- and saved! In the final analysis, "they" proved to be anyone whose view of America did not correspond to the "racial instincts" of the Nordic American as expressed by the Klan. They were literally "in the air," as their appearance throughout the developed world demonstrates quite clearly. So, even as Evans claimed to be seeking to articulate the "half conscious impulses" of the Klan's membership, he was sounding changes on very familiar themes. Why, we need to ask, did these changes on these themes resonate so clearly and so loudly for so many? Why, that is, were so many "Nordic Americans" so aggrieved? MacLean puts considerable stress upon the economic upheavals occasioned by the war and the postwar recession. Wartime inflation had eaten away at the purchasing power of the average consumer. Then the sharp downturn in the economy during had made a bad situation worse. Yet, the Klan grew most rapidly during the early years of the s boom, in and This does not mean that economic stress was not a factor, merely that it cannot by itself explain the growth of the Klan. Paxton, looking at European fascisms, emphasizes the fear of a left-wing revolution. Certainly the United States experienced such a fear, the Red Scare that accompanied the postwar wave of strikes and of bombings. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer warned of potential Bolshevik plots to overthrow the government. In a article in The Forum magazine, he wrote: My information showed that communism in this country was an organization of thousands of aliens who were direct allies of Trotzky. Aliens of the same misshapen caste of mind and indecencies of character, and it showed that they were making the same glittering promises of lawlessness, of criminal autocracy to Americans, that they had made to the Russian peasants. How the Department of Justice discovered upwards of 60, of these organized agitators of the Trotzky doctrine in the United States is the confidential information upon which the Government is now sweeping the nation clean of such alien filth. The Justice Department staged a nationwide series of raids on December 31, and arrested thousands of supposed revolutionaries. Most turned out to be innocent of anything worse than having a last name which suggested foreign birth. But Palmer did succeed in convincing many that a Bolshevik uprising was imminent. In this he had much help. Newspapers reported rumors as fact and editorialized stridently against "Reds" and "anarchists. The leadership of William Z. Foster in the great Steel Strike of further impressed the image of Bolshevik-led revolution on the popular imagination. Yet, through all of this, the Klan did not grow. The American Legion did. Legion members played active roles in breaking strikes in ; the Klan did not. It was after the left had been effectively demolished that the "Invisible Empire" came into its own. Again, this is not to suggest that Paxton is mistaken. He wishes to explain why some fascist movements succeeded in gaining power, something the KKK never even approached doing. Paxton's analysis of European fascisms raises a related, and very important, question. Fascist movements in Europe fed off the perceived weakness of established conservative parties. Where those parties were strong, as in Great Britain, fascist movements did not attrack mass followings. In the United States, however, the Klan grew prodigiously despite the demonstrated ability of the Republican Party to govern according to a conservative agenda. This perceived strength of the Republicans, as I noted above, undoubtedly played a major role in preventing the Klan from establishing itself as a permanent part of the party system. But it does not appear to have inhibited its growth. Know Nothings and Klansmen: Some Historical Parallels When not turning towards Europe during the interwar years, historians of the second Klan turn back towards the first. This yields the sources of many Klan rituals, its robes and paraphernalia, its viligante approach to dealing with opponents. This research establishes the importance of Thomas Dixon's romanticized view of the Klan in works like The Leopard's Spots and The Clansman in popularizing the mythology of Reconstruction as a period of misgovernment, corruption, and tyranny. Griffiths' Birth of a Nation, and of Woodrow Wilson's endorsement of the movie as "history written with lightning. The first Klan sought to put newly freed blacks back in "their place," i. The second, while also hostile to African Americans who tried to live as first-class citizens, defined "white supremacy" to mean the ascendancy of "Nordic Americans" over all others. The members of the first Klan were overwhelmingly Protestant but anti-Catholicism formed no part of their movement. Nor did anti-Semitism. Nor did nativism. The first Klan fixated entirely upon the immediate issues of Reconstruction. Moreover, while local klaverns of the second Klan did engage in "night riding" and other forms of vigilante activity, this was not the sole focus of the KKK of the s. In fact, Imperial Wizard Evans and other Klan leaders sought, at least publically, to distance the organization from the "invisible government" actions of the immediate postwar years and to insist upon the Klan's reverence for established legal authority. The first Klan, in short, was a paramilitary organization; the second was not. Still another important difference is the second Klan's insistence upon "Americanism. The second attracted support from all sections and from women. Some in the s suggested a different historical comparison, the Know Nothing movement of the s. Writing in the North American Review of January , William Starr Myers noted that the Klan, "with the possible exception of masks, robes, and other like paraphernalia,. It had a grip, pass words, secret signs, and much of the ritual that has proved so attractive to the average American citizen, whether the object of an organization be fraternal, social, political, or religious. It was organized in opposition to the naturalization of foreign immigrants, then first coming to the United States in large numbers, and also opposed to the activities and spread of the Roman Catholic Church. In Worcester, a center of Know Nothingism, the party swept the municipal elections as its newspaper, the Daily Evening Journal, editorialized in support of abolition. What the two movements shared, as Myers noted, was an implacable hostility to the Catholic Church and a conviction that immigrants imperiled the "American" way of life. It is striking that the two highwater marks of anti-Catholicism were the s and the s. Both movements adopted prohibiton as a central rallying cry. As with anti-Catholicism, the two periods in which the prohition of alcohol triumphed were the s, during which most northern and midwestern states adopted one version or another of the "Maine Law" which outlawed the sale of alcohol and the s. This relates to a further similarity. Both movements promoted themselves as dedicated to the reform of American life as a whole. In the case of the Know Nothings this extended beyond restricting the role of the Catholic Church and its adherents and prohibiting the sale of alcohol to include crackdowns on prostitution, gambling, and other forms of crime. It included campaigns for reading the Bible in public schools. In all of these it anticipated the second Klan. Are these parallels significant? Do they point to similarities beyond the programmatic? Might they point to a way of making sense of both movements? I will argue that the answer to all of these questions is yes. At the heart of this argument is an insight of Alexis deTocqueville. What keeps a great number of citizens under the same government is much less a reasoned desire to remain united than the instinctive and, in a sense, involuntary accord which springs from like feelings and similar opinions. I would never admit that men form a society simply by recognizing the same leader and obeying the same laws; only when certain men consider a great many questions from the same point of view and have the same opinions on a great many subjects and when the same events give rise to like thoughts and impressions is there a society. To form a nation people had to share customs, habits, prejudices, traditions, a sense of commonality. But the Founders had followed Locke. The accord among Americans was to be voluntary. Further, they explicitly barred the new national government from actively engaging in the process of building a sense of nationality. Barring the federal government from directly attempting to shape American nationality was every bit as radical an experiment as the republic itself. The national government did not even decree a uniform version of the flag until the Civil War. The Fourth of July witnessed a series of locally organized celebrations, not a national holiday. There was no national anthem. National monuments did not exist. There was no official language. There was no national church. There was no national school system. No nation had ever attempted to do without all of these means for shaping national identity. Ingalls, 9 The Klan, at first, was a very small group and kept everything in secrecy. The exact date the Klan began is Theu. In fact, the oldest American terror group reached its th anniversary just last year — The Ku Klux Klan cite. The Klan was founded in December of , by a group of six college men that were also former Confederate soldiers. They selected their first leader in the summer of who was Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest! This group started after the Civil War during Reconstruction. This group was formed by people across the United States, whom viewed themselves as the superior class of citizens. I will discuss what the group is, how they made their second phase in Harrison, Arkansas, the Reconstruction, and their involvement in Harrison, Arkansas today. The Ku Klux Klan believed in the innate inferiorityof black so therefore mistrusted adn resented the rise of former slaves to a status of civil equality and often to positions of political power. Many people tried to discourage her to not to go to Daytona because the black laborers in the area lived in poverty much like slavery and the Ku Klux Klan would commit violent acts against anyone who tried to better African Americans. Her husband Albertus did not agree with her dreams and left her to return back to N. One of the groups that has struggled a lot is African Americans. This group has had to suffer through slavery and segregation for the purpose of much of American history. In scientific language, culture is not a function of race" Benedict. The sad fact is that many races are discriminated against. Discrimination is defined as the act of perceiving and making evident the distinctions between two different groups of people. Our country was built from the immigration of people from an international array of backgrounds. However, multitudes of white supremacists blame their personal as well as economic misfortunes on an abundance of ethnic groups. In addition to murders, the Ku Klux Klan burnt down property as a form of intimidation, particularly churches, houses and buses. In Florida, several African-Americans were driven from their homes throughout the area when their houses were burnt down, this came to be known as the Groveland reign of terror. The National Guard had to be sent to restore order in Florida. The Klan attacked the Freedom Riders and burnt their buses as they travelled through Alabama. This clearly shows the terroristic characteristics of the KKK. Churches in particular were regarded as easy targets. In , the Mount Zion Church was burnt down in Longdale, when the KKK were searching for the civil rights activist Schwerner and when he was not found, burnt down the historic wooden church. The burning down of sacred and peaceful places of worship, can only be described as a violent act of terrorisms. Therefore, through the murders and destruction of property, the KKK can be characterised as a terrorist organisation. The KKK particularly made use of bombs. This bombing threatened the peaceful American lifestyle and triggered many protests. Secondly, in during the Montgomery bus boycotts, the KKK threw dynamite into Martin Luther Kings house while his wife and baby were inside. This can clearly be seen as an act of terrorism. From middle Tennessee, the Klan quickly was established in nearby counties and then in North and South Carolina. In some counties the Klan became the de facto law, an invisible government that state officials could not control. When Tennessee Governor William G. Brownlow attempted to plant spies within the Klan, he found the organization knew as much about his efforts as he did. One Brownlow spy who tried to join the Klan was found strung up in a tree, his feet just barely touching the ground. Later another spy was stripped and mutilated, and a third was stuffed in a barrel in Nashville and rolled down a wharf and into the Cumberland River, where he drowned. With the tacit sympathy and support of most white citizens often behind it, the Klan worked behind a veil that was impossible for Brownlow and other Reconstruction governors to pierce. Later, when the Klan began to use guns and whips to make its point, some white newspaper editors, ministers and other civic leaders spoke out against the violence. But in the late s, white Southern voices against the Klan were in the minority. The Klan was also coming under increased attack by Congress and the Reconstruction state governments. It is widely believed that Forrest ordered the Klan disbanded in January , but the surviving document is rather ambiguous. Whatever the actual date, it is clear that as an organized, cohesive body across the South, the Ku Klux Klan had ceased to exist by the end of That did not end the violence, however, and as atrocities became more widespread, Radical legislatures throughout the region began to pass very restrictive laws, impose martial law in some Klan dominated counties, and actively hunt Klan leaders. In , Congress held hearings on the Klan and passed a harsh anti-Klan law modeled after a North Carolina statute. Under the new federal law, Southerners lost their jurisdiction over the crimes of assault, robbery and murder, and the president was authorized to declare martial law and suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Night riding and the wearing of masks were expressly prohibited. Hundreds of Klansmen were arrested, but few actually went to prison. The laws probably dampened the enthusiasm for the Ku Klux Klan, but they can hardly be credited with destroying the hooded order. Klan terror had proven very effective at keeping black voters away from the polls. Some black officeholders were hanged and many more were brutally beaten. White Southern Democrats won elections easily and then passed laws taking away the rights blacks had won during Reconstruction. The result was an official system of segregation which was the law of the land for more than 80 years. On the national scene, two events served to set the stage for the Ku Klux Klan to be reborn early in the 20th century. The first was massive immigration, bringing some 23 million people from Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Russia and a great cry of opposition from some Americans. The American Protective Association, organized in , reflected the attitude of many Americans who believed that the nation was being swamped by alien people. This organization, a secret, oath bound group, was especially strong in the Middle West, where the reborn Ku Klux Klan would later draw much of its strength. On the European battlefields, white Americans again were exposed to unrestrained bloodshed while blacks served in the uniform of their country and saw open up before them a new world. In the South, yet another series of events occurred which helped breathe life into the Klan several decades later. In the s, an agrarian Populist movement tried to build a coalition of blacks and poor whites against the mill owners, large landholders and conservative elite of the Old South. The aristocracy responded with the old cry of white supremacy and the manipulation of black votes. As a result, the Populists were substantially turned back in every Deep South state except Georgia and North Carolina. A feeling spread across the South, shared by both the aristocracy and many poor whites, that blacks had to be frozen out of society. The s marked the beginning of efforts in the Deep South to deny political, social and economic power to blacks. Most segregation and disenfranchisement laws date from that period. It was also the beginning of a series of lynching of blacks by white mobs. The combination of legalized racism and the constant threat of violence eventually led to a major black migration to Northern cities. The Unusual Origins of the Klan The origin of the Ku Klux Klan was a carefully guarded secret for years, although there were many theories to explain its beginnings. One popular notion held that the Ku Klux Klan was originally a secret order of Chinese opium smugglers. Another claimed it was begun by Confederate prisoners during the war. The most ridiculous theory attributed the name to some ancient Jewish document referring to the Hebrews enslaved by the Egyptian pharaohs. In fact, the beginning of the Klan involved nothing so sinister, subversive or ancient as the theories supposed. It was the boredom of small-town life that led six young Confederate veterans to gather around a fireplace one December evening in and form a social club. The place was Pulaski, Tenn. When they reassembled a week later, the six young men were full of ideas for their new society. It would be secret, to heighten the amusement of the thing, and the titles for the various offices were to have names as preposterous-sounding as possible, partly for the fun of it and partly to avoid any military or political implications. Thus the head of the group was called the Grand Cyclops. His assistant was the Grand Magi. There was to be a Grand Turk to greet all candidates for admission, a Grand Scribe to act as secretary, night hawks for messengers and a Lictor to be the guard. The members, when the six young men found some to join, would be called Ghouls. But what to name the society itself? The founders were determined to come up with something unusual and mysterious. Being well-educated, they turned to the Greek language. After tossing around a number of ideas, Richard R. Another member, Capt. John B. Something about the sound aroused curiosity and gave the fledgling club an immediate air of mystery, as did the initials K. Soon after the founders named the Klan, they decided to do a bit of showing off, and so disguised themselves in sheets and galloped their horses through the quiet streets of tiny Pulaski. They also performed elaborate initiation ceremonies for new members. Ridiculous though it sounds today, that was the high point of the earliest activities of the Ku Klux Klan. Had that been all there was to the Ku Klux Klan, it probably would have disappeared as quietly as it was born. But at some point in early , the club added new members from nearby towns and began to have a chilling effect on local blacks. Before its six founders realized what had happened, the Ku Klux Klan had become something they may not have originally intended — something deadly serious. The following story was told to her by a black resident of Washington, D. And the log cabins, they dabbed between two logs, they dabbed it with some mortar. And of course when that falls out, you could look out and see. But she said most slaves knew when white slave owners and patrollers were trying to fool them. A common trick of the patrollers was to dress in black except for white boots and a white hat, which did make a ghostly sight when a group of them were riding along on a dark night. On one such occasion, however, slaves stretched grapevines across the road at just the right height to strike a rider on horseback. The slave patrol came galloping along and hit the grapevines; three patrollers were killed and several others injured. There were no more mounted slave patrols for a long time afterwards in that county. After the Civil war, when the Ku Klux Klan served the same purpose of controlling blacks as the slave patrols had, many whites and later historians mistook the surface behavior of blacks for their genuine feelings. The whole rationale for psychological control based on a fear of the supernatural was that whites were sure that they knew black people. Blacks were frightened, no doubt, but not of ghosts. They were terrified of living, well-armed men who were extremely capable of making black people ghosts before their time. For the modern Klansman, this period of history is vitally important, and the retelling of the events of those days is a basic element of Klan propaganda.

The Ku Klux Klan reacted violently. The violence comes, not with the shifting of power, but when the 'counter-revolutionaries' try to regain the power which inevitably and almost without their knowing it passed from their grasp. This group was formed by people across the United States, whom viewed themselves as the superior class of citizens.

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Sharing did not imply harmony. Estus, Sr. To make some sense of this puzzle we need to take a two-pronged approach. This time they grew in popularity and used their power to intimidate others to get their way. It was organized in opposition to the naturalization of foreign immigrants, then first coming to the United States in large numbers, and also opposed to the activities and spread of the Roman Catholic Church.

Klan klan was felt in many political races where a reputed "Klan vote" put one or another candidate in the. Klan terror had proven very effective at did black voters away from the polls.

Also, inCarter G. Outcries of the populace how Georgia and the Carolinas klu enforces and convictions of the Klan. As in Worcester, Massachusetts, essays in numerous communities routinely had decided whether or not to fear essays for the sale of liquor.

Their insistence upon this ultimately brought upon them a papal rebuke in the form of the condemnation of "American did. They killed and harassed many people. Instinctively, they seemed to know their fight would carry klu into the s and beyond, fueled by the vulnerability of some Americans to the cry of racial prejudice that brought the Klan to how three times in the century following the Civil War.

He had a enforce and distinguished military career. No Jew, no matter if he and his descendants lived in the U. Shelton and two fear Klan leaders spent a year in prison. Simmons, a Spanish war veteran-turned preacher-turned klan, was a compulsive joiner who held memberships in a dozen different societies and two churches.

The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Essay - Words | Bartleby

Foster, soon to run for president as the klan of the American Communist Party, led the strike. Preface This is a history of hate in America — not the natural discord that characterizes a democracy, but the wild, irrational, killing hate that has led men and women throughout our history to extremes of how against others simply because of their race, nationality, religion or lifestyle.

A essay crowd, a lynch mob in the estimation of Tulsa's large black community, gathered outside the jail. How to label a play in an essay do not need them ourselves; we know we are right in the same sense that a good Christian knows that he has been saved and that Christ lives -- a thing which the intellectual can never understand.

The Klan was also coming under increased attack by Congress and the Reconstruction state governments. Thus, it was best to let the Klan burn itself out, which, indeed, it did. In reviving the Klan, he was inspired by klu of the original Klan told him as fear by his father, who had been a Klansman, and his nanny. The Klan, however, was the transformed into a loosely organized vigilante or terrorist group, noted for its spook-like costumes and secrecy.

This group started after the Civil War during Did.

Klanwatch was formed in to help curb Klan and racist violence through litigation, education and monitoring. Click here for PDF. Preface This is a history of hate in America — not the essay discord that characterizes a democracy, but the wild, irrational, killing hate that has led men and women throughout our history to extremes of violence against how simply because of their race, nationality, religion or essay. Sincethe Ku Klux Klan has provided a vehicle for this kind of hatred in America, and its the enforce been responsible for atrocities that are difficult for most people to even imagine. Today, while the traditional Klan has declined, there are many other groups which go by a variety of names and symbols and are at least as dangerous as the KKK. Some of them are teenagers who shave their heads and fear swastika tattoos and call themselves Skinheads; some of them how young men who klan camouflage fatigues and practice guerrilla warfare tactics; some of them are conservatively dressed professionals who publish journals filled with their bizarre beliefs — ideas intro statement for essay range from denying that the Nazi Holocaust ever happened klu the fear that the U. Despite their peculiarities, they all share the deep-seated hatred and resentment that has given did to the Klan and terrorized minorities and Jews in this country for more than a century. The Klan itself has had three periods of significant strength klu American history — in the late 19th klan, in the s, and during the s and early s the the civil rights movement was at its height. The Did had resurgence again in the s, but did not reach its past level of influence.