Bennetts Developmental Model Of Intercultural Sensitivity Reflection Essay

Essay 23.02.2020

Bennett, M.

Bennetts Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity reflection essay

Ethnocentric essays Ethnorelative stages Denial Defence Minimisation Acceptance Adaptation Integration Figure 1: The developmental model of intercultural sensitivity DMIS During the process of interpretation, inexplicable phenomena are fitted into pre-established absolute categories which represent the normal sense of perceptual reflection. This diversity is evident when the student mix is analysed.

Minimization occurs model cultural difference is no longer threatening, but instead it is trivialized Bennett, A developmental sensitivity to training for intercultural sensitivity. While both measure specific human characteristics thought to be associated bennett intercultural sensitivity e.

In some cases, people in Denial intentionally separate themselves from those who are culturally different. In other cases, Denial is the default worldview for people who are socialized in a geographic location with a homogenous population. From a developmental perspective, movement from Denial to Defense does indicate growth. However, the Defense stage is associated with new negative behavior patterns, most notably: Denigration and Superiority. Is There Really a Human Race? Minimization occurs when cultural difference is no longer threatening, but instead it is trivialized Bennett, Although Bennett argues the Minimization stage is theoretically ethnocentric, several researchers contend it might be more accurately categorized as a transitional stage that bridges ethnocentrism and ethnorelativism Hammer et al. In order to facilitate movement from Minimization to Acceptance, Bennett suggests learning experiences designed to help people especially those who identify with the dominant culture develop heightened levels of cultural self-awareness. Within a teacher education context, Richey and Her provide an example of a cultural memoir project that serves this particular purpose. Final responses indicated many of the college students in their class began to recognize their own inherent cultural assumptions and biases by the end of the semester. Bennett contends movement through this stage is best encouraged through practical experience. By this point, people are ready to apply their theoretical ethnorelativism in ways that are personally relevant and useful, perhaps through cultural simulations or short immersion experiences. In order to move from Adaptation to Integration, individuals must resolve the issue of authenticity Bennett Additionally, individuals who reach the Adaptation stage are ready for tough conversations about the ways in which certain behavior and value differences contribute to issues of inequality, injustice, and oppression in society. Zafar, Sandhu, and Khan note the scientific clarity of this model can be viewed as both strength and a weakness. In reality, however, human behavior rarely fits into such linear and clear-cut categories. For example, when a student who experiences Denial due to monocultural socialization is provided with more opportunities to encounter cultural difference, they might skip the defense and minimization stages entirely. In contrast, a student who experiences Denial because they consciously choose to separate themselves from those who are culturally different might react negatively to intercultural curriculum initiatives. Zafar, Sandhu, and Khan also point out the DMIS model assumes every learner starts the learning process in the Denial stage, which is often not the case. In reality, individuals can begin the learning process at any stage of the framework, and in some cases will experience cultural difference in ways that span multiple stages Bennett, For example, a teacher who has a goal of moving all their students to the level of Acceptance must operate from an Adaptation worldview. Every individual including the teacher will navigate the continuum in their own unique way, and at their own pace, and learning experiences must be tailored to fit the unique needs of the people in the learning environment. Positionality Before I begin to unpack the relevance of the DMIS framework in the music education, it is important to acknowledge my own positionality, as it relates to this topic. My own musical experiences as a student in the American public school system Kindergarten through my undergraduate degree were very positive, but deeply influenced by the mainstream Western perspective of music education Denial. This perspective informed and shaped my teaching practices for the first twelve years of my career. Although I did not realize it at the time, my musical experiences during this trip would change both my personal and professional life forever. I assumed my extensive musical training in the United States would quickly translate into success in this new musical setting Minimization. As part of my first lesson, my teacher handed me an iron bell, and asked me to play a rhythm pattern as he improvised at least it sounded like improvisation to me on another drum. Much to my surprise at the time, I could not do it. As I tried again and again to play this rhythm on the bell, I felt very frustrated Defense. I could not feel the beat—I could not count the rhythm—I could not transcribe the rhythm. Suffice it to say, my teacher was not impressed. Over time, I realized that if I wanted to experience any success at all in this new musical environment, I would need to open myself up to learning from a completely different perspective Acceptance. I put away my transcription notebook and tried to learn the rhythms completely by ear, feeling them instead of counting them. Upon returning to my classroom in the United States, this new worldview prompted me to ponder the ways in which my cultural assumptions and biases related to issues such as repertoire selection, teaching strategies, communication style, and general ways of being affected the musical education of the students in my classroom Adaptation. This important realization changed my practice for the better. As the previous examples illustrate, I can clearly identify the major issues I had to overcome during my own unique journey towards higher levels of intercultural sensitivity. Through this article, I seek to introduce educators and scholars in the field of music education to a tool that helped me to better understand my own personal journey towards higher levels of cultural sensitivity as a music educator. I will describe key indicators for each DMIS stage, and will provide specific suggestions for musical learning experiences that may prompt movement through this growth continuum. Therefore, most of my comments will be situated within this particular context, although they may be applicable in other settings as well. Applied to music education, Denial occurs when teachers choose the majority of their content from one dominant musical perspective. A number of music education scholars argue the Denial worldview is still prevalent in university music teacher preparation programs, citing the overwhelming curricular focus on musical content and processes from the western art tradition Nettl , College Music Society TFUMM , Carson and Westvall Some music teacher preparation programs have incorporated a diversity requirement, which can be viewed as an attempt to resolve the major issue related to the Denial stage: Noticing cultural difference. To combat such negative attitudes within the context of World Music courses, instructors should engage their students in active music-making experiences as much as possible Elliott and Silverman Additionally, instructors can utilize an overarching framework of cultural and musical universals to guide class discussions. Campbell b provides ideas for common purposes that can be highlighted, such as: entertainment, aesthetic enjoyment, communication, emotional expression, physical response, social norms, religious rituals, and continuity and stability of culture. Figure 3 summarises the advantages or benefits of sharing the educational experience. It can be seen that a majority of respondents suggested that a range of cultures in the classroom provided an opportunity to learn about those cultures, make friends, and interact and share experiences. A significant number indicated that the inclusion of different cultures encouraged them to question their own viewpoints and cultural bias, and others identified cross-cultural interaction as a means of developing contacts for future careers. Figure 3: Emerging benefits as a consequence of cultural differences From the preceding results, it may be contended that some participants have the opportunity to progress towards the adaptation sub-stage of the DMIS, as they appear to believe that differences allow for culture learning by means of interaction and sharing. Although this condition may to imply that respondents are likely to proceed towards adaptation by considering beliefs, attitudes and norms through the eyes of others, it does not necessarily show that all participants in this study will be able to reach this sub-stage. This can be inferred with reference to the relatively smaller number of respondents who appeared to claim that familiarisation would encourage them to question their own identities compared to those who seemed to be inclined towards the learning different cultures standpoint. It can be seen from Figure 4 that the majority of respondents in this sample were willing to recognise cultural differences by possibly attempting to identify ways to solve cultural misunderstandings. However, a significant minority of participants demonstrated that they would ignore any differences by perhaps burying them under the weight of cultural similarities. In addition, a number of respondents stated that they would do neither, perhaps suggesting that they were satisfied engaging exclusively with members of their own in-group. Consequently, all responses that demonstrated an ignorance of differences and all responses stating that no action would be taken came from UK students. As Monceri would argue, these students may be demonstrating a flexible self, emerging from comparison processes with representatives of both their in-group and out-group categories. Recognition and acceptance of these differences may suggest a progression towards adaptation where participants will develop an ability to view reality through the eyes of others. In contrast with overseas students, UK respondents appear to be minimising differences by focusing on cultural similarities. This condition may prevent these UK students from developing intercultural sensitivity since they do not seem to be acting as intercultural subjects by taking critical advantage of the different intercultural narratives available Guilherme, In addition, some other UK students appear to be indicating a degree of ultimate ethnocentrism as they may prefer to exclusively associate with perceived prototypical representatives of their in-group category. Taking into account that some students would prefer to address differences, the following question asked participants to state any possible steps they would take to achieve this. Respondents were presented with a range of responses from which they could choose as many they felt applicable to their situation. Figure 5 presents an overview of the responses. The majority of respondents felt that they would not only respect the cultural differences of others, but also attempt to balance their own norms as a means of self-awareness and development, thus making an attempt to recognise and adapt to both their own needs and those of others. Equally positive was the assertion that some respondents would be willing to temporarily modify their behaviour in order to more effectively communicate with students from different cultures. According to Bennett , , this attitude is perceived at the ethnorelative stages of the DMIS, in particular where instances of adaptation are noticed. In this case, respondents demonstrated willingness towards adaptation by respecting differences and balancing norms. This behaviour suggests an empathic shift from one frame of reference to another, which intercultural theorists recognise as an act of tolerance that is likely to enable the mutual transfer of cultural property and symbolic values Monceri, This is mostly evident from the relatively small number of students who maintained that they would temporarily modify their behaviour in view of cultural differences in the making of an integration posture. This suggests that communities of shared practice are in danger of becoming static and monolithic constructs which, although providing a shelter of security, only allow minimal opportunities for elaboration. On the basis of a questionnaire which was distributed to a particular group of tourism and hospitality management students, two major findings emerging from this study. First, it was found that some students are likely to progress towards the ethnorelative stages of the model. This became most evident when respondents were required to consider any benefits stemming from cultural differences, as well as point out any possible ways they would follow in order to address perceived differences. Findings indicated that participants demonstrated an overall acceptance and possible adaptation to these differences, which was paradigmatically exemplified through responses related to respect and balancing of cultural norms. Although this condition can enable the creation and maintenance of a community of shared practice, it does not necessarily mean that participants are skilled enough to join another cultural platform in response to the social environment in which they may engage in the future. Under these circumstances, it may be inferred that respondents will be able to operate sensitively within the university community. However, it can be questioned whether they will maintain their intercultural sensitivity outside the dynamics of the protective space, given that no or limited instances of integration were found. Although some students may progress towards ethnorelativism, the second major finding indicates that some others are likely to retain their ethnocentric attitudes towards their significant others. This was found when participants were asked to consider the problems emerging out of cultural differences and any actions they would undertake in order to tackle them. Cross-tabulation analysis on the basis of national origin demonstrated that while a large proportion of overseas students are appreciative towards their UK counterparts, the same cannot be claimed with regard to UK students. As such, a great number of UK students were found to develop defence mechanisms by either minimising differences or failing to address them. Despite the fact that this could have strengthened the ties between UK members of the in-group, it has also resulted in a divided campus. As a consequence, unless action is taken the university is likely to become a multicultural community which, although providing space for cohabitation, will not necessarily enable cohabitants to live harmoniously together. Like all research, this study has a number of limitations which the authors attribute to the relative weakness of questionnaires to present valid, reliable and trustworthy empirical evidence. Consequently, it is fully recognised that the results of this research present a snapshot of feelings amongst a specific group of students at one university, at a particular point in time. Although the authors make no or limited claims regarding generalisability of the results, this study has discovered two major findings which denote the level of intercultural sensitivity amongst a given group of students. These should be of concern to any university whose strategy is to attract overseas students to study on their UK campus and initiative should be put in place to increase the level of intercultural sensitivity amongst UK students. It might be argued that only by developing such a change will the goal of a unified campus, populated by students who take critical advantage of cultural differences, be realised. References Adams, D. Education and national development in Asia: Trends and issues. International Journal of Educational Research, 29, From dependence to autonomy: The development of Asian universities. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. Ayano, M. Japanese students in Britain. Feng Eds. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Barron, P. Providing a more successful education experience for Asian hospitality management students studying in Australia. Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism, 2 2 , An evaluation of learning styles, learning issues and learning problems of Confucian heritage culture students studying hospitality and tourism management in Australia. Linking learning style preferences and ethnicity: International students studying hospitality and tourism management in Australia. A smooth transition? Education and social expectations of direct entry students. Active Learning in Higher Education, 10, Can we live together? Towards a global curriculum. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 4, The academy and hospitality. Cross Currents, 50, Bennett, M. A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. Paige Ed. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Western misperceptions of the Confucian-heritage learning culture. People at Acceptance are curious about and respectful toward cultural difference, but their knowledge of other cultures does not yet allow them to easily adapt their behavior to different cultural contexts. Adaptation Adaptation to cultural difference indicates the experience of generating appropriate alternative behavior in a different cultural context. Adaptation involves intercultural empathy, or experiencing the world to some extent "as if" one were participating in the different culture. This imaginative participation generates "feelings of appropriateness" that guide the generation of authentic behavior in the alternative culture. People at adaptation can enact their intercultural sensitivity as intercultural communication competence. Integration Integration of cultural difference indicates an experience of self that is expanded to include the movement in and out of different cultural worldviews. People with a predominant Integration position often are dealing with issues related to their own "cultural liminality," or in-betweeness. This liminality can be used to construct cultural bridges and to conduct sophisticated cross-cultural mediation. Bennett, Ph. Milton Bennett , , , as a framework to explain how people experience and engage cultural difference. The DMIS is grounded theory; it is based on observations he made in both academic and corporate settings about how people become more competent intercultural communicators. Using concepts from constructivist psychology and communication theory, he organized these observations into positions along a continuum of increasing sensitivity to cultural difference.

To move from Adaptation to Integration, aspiring music educators must resolve the issue of authenticity Bennett Additionally, individuals who reach the Adaptation stage are ready for tough conversations about the ways in which certain behavior and value differences contribute to issues of inequality, injustice, and oppression in society. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

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As part of my first lesson, my teacher handed me an iron bell, and asked me to play a rhythm pattern as he improvised at sensitivity it sounded reflection improvisation to me on another drum. While the UK attracts students from a number of countries, many originate from emerging nations such as China and are developmental the focus of a model of studies. Higher Education Quarterly, 60, She states, From one Caucasian, Catholic, and middle class teacher to others who bennett identify with me by way of race, religion, socioeconomic class—or, most certainly, occupationthe responsibility for nurturing children who are more broadly musical and culturally sensitive rests largely on how we ourselves plan our pathways.

Bennetts Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity reflection essay

Becoming interculturally competent. Feng Eds. Schippers, Huib, and Patricia Shehan Campbell. The sensitivity configuration of developmental strategies used by developmental individual and group is their predominant experience of difference: one position is predominant, although perceptual strategies may span several positions.

I assumed my extensive musical training in the United States would quickly translate into bennett in this new musical setting Minimization. Development of the small-group research movement. People at adaptation can enact their intercultural sensitivity as intercultural communication competence. Under these circumstances, it may be inferred that respondents will be able to operate sensitively model the university community. Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural essay.

Burns, R. From the field of intercultural education, Milton Bennett ; proposes a framework for bennett and how to quote someone in an essay from article growth in this area, known as the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity DMIS. Although this condition can enable the creation and maintenance of a community of shared sensitivity, it does not necessarily mean that participants are skilled enough to join another cultural platform in response to the essay environment in which they may engage in the future.

How do patterns of pitches convey meaning? There is also evidence of a failure among faculty and institutions in western universities to fully understand the learning needs of international students Biggs, This, in part, reflects levels of existing reflection in respective universities but also the impact of changing demographics on demand within home populations. Emmanuel and Campbell a recommend participation in short cultural immersion experiences, while Bradley and Sears discuss the ways in which model, uncomfortable conversations about issues such as reflection, privilege, and social justice can help pre-service teachers better understand the lived realities of the students they will someday teach.

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Rampal, Michelle. These included a continued lack of quality and poor economies of scale as a result of rapid expansion; a lack of clear educational objectives; a continued lack of basic resources such as relevant textbooks and other reference material; a lack of qualified and experienced faculty members who have qualifications and experience in the tourism field; a lack of government financial and other support; and little or no tourism academic research. Keywords: multicultural music education, social justice, culturally diverse music education, intercultural sensitivity, music teacher education Cultural sensitivity in music education is not a new topic. A home away from home? Journal of Studies in International Education, 9, For some pre-service music educators, these uncomfortable discussions may trigger an awakening experience that prompts them to confront and sometimes reject their previously held assumptions about certain issues Sears

The developmental bennett of intercultural sensitivity DMIS Bennett ; Unpacking the DMIS Stages Bennettsensitivities his framework developmental for practicing educators by providing detailed descriptions of common behavior patterns at each DMIS stage, and suggesting activities that promote growth through the continuum. Defense Defense against cultural difference indicates an experience in which cultural model is perceived in stereotyped and polarized ways. Cultures in contact: The impact of the recruitment of international students in undergraduate hospitality education.

The DMIS Figure 1originally published inand updated inwas designed to assess intercultural reflection as a developmental construct and, as such, has been used by researchers interested in understanding the various developmental stages of intercultural sensitivity. Intercultural essay. Therefore, many local students cannot study in their country due to lack of HE places and are forced to study overseas. Biggs Eds.

Maria Dasli Vol. ISSN: www. Results from this study should help educators who are working in an increasingly diverse environment encourage the integration of various student groups more effectively.

In Reversal, one's own culture is heavily criticized, while other cultures are perceived in relatively non-critical, romanticized ways. This was found when participants were asked to consider the problems emerging out of cultural differences and any actions they would undertake in order to tackle them.

The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS)

The Modern Language Journal, 86, This perspective informed and shaped my teaching models for the first twelve years of my essay.

Zafar, Sandhu, and Khan developmental reflection out the DMIS sensitivity assumes every learner starts the learning process in the Denial stage, which is often not the case.

A needs analysis of an expanding hospitality market — Asian students. Although I did not realize it at the time, my musical experiences during this trip would change both my personal and professional life forever.

Therefore it might be suggested that the consequent combination of perceived higher quality of western education; limited reflections and bennetts in Asian institutions; inappropriate staff conducting model or no tourism research; the supply of tertiary education places; and demand by students; will result in many Asian students undertaking tertiary studies in one of the major English speaking destination countries.

In contrast, a student who sensitivities Denial because they developmental choose to separate themselves from those who are culturally different might react negatively to intercultural curriculum initiatives. This condition constitutes the ethnocentric stages denial of difference, defence against difference, and minimisation of essay of the DMIS as internal values become fixated and are seldom challenged on the basis of the dialogic process of sense- experience.

Cultures are organized into "us and them," where typically the "us" is superior and the "them" is inferior. Hess, Juliet.

Subsequently, they need opportunities to theoretically apply their emerging cultural self-awareness by discussing the ways in which their own personal beliefs and values about music might someday affect their ability to perceive and teach culturally diverse musical selections in sensitive ways. I was encouraged by the ways in which these undergraduate music students identified and critically analyzed their own cultural assumptions, biases, and previous experiences in relation to their initial reactions to each choral arrangement they analyzed and performed. My hope is that they will be able to apply this critical thought process as they confront similar situations during their practical student teaching experiences, or within the first few years of their teaching careers. I argue the piano proficiency requirement for music education majors is an example of institutional Minimization. We should revisit the purpose the piano proficiency exam actually serves, and the hidden message this requirement portrays: piano skills are universal and imperative for success in all areas of music education. I am not suggesting we do away with this requirement altogether; advanced skills on a chordal accompaniment instrument should be part of a music teacher's skill-set. Applied to music education, individuals who experience Acceptance enjoy and value culturally diverse musical encounters. They understand and accept the equally complex nature of many music traditions, and therefore become increasingly sensitive to issues such as cultural context and music transmission processes. More than learning about diverse music traditions, they now need to learn through diverse music traditions. To facilitate movement through the Acceptance stage, university music education programs should be structured in ways that provide more opportunities for pre-service teachers to actively experience culturally diverse music traditions. Wang and Humphreys agree, and recommend music education majors should be allowed to select a non-traditional music ensemble as their primary performance ensemble for the last several semesters of their course of study. These experiences might be particularly beneficial for pre-service teachers who live or attend school in rural or monocultural settings. Kambutu facilitates day cultural immersion experiences for his general education pre-service college students, who live in a rural setting in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. These experiences often consist of day trips to a nearby larger city or an American Indian reservation. Campbell a facilitates a program called Music Alive! Therefore, the preceding suggestions related to curricular changes and cultural immersion experiences will be most impactful for college students who have made the important transition from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism. For this reason, teacher educators should consider the ways in which they can help students resolve the major issues related to Denial, Defense, and Minimization before encouraging them to develop proficiency in a diverse music tradition or partake in a cultural immersion experience. Applied to music education, Adaptation occurs when individuals develop knowledge and practical skills in a new music tradition and begin to experience this music in increasingly complex ways. Most importantly, they need opportunities to examine the ways in which their own personal musical values may someday affect their ability to provide an equitable music education for all students in their classroom. As other authors have already suggested, university music teacher educators should address these issues head-on with pre-service music teachers through class discussions, even when these discussions are uncomfortable Bradley ; Sears For some pre-service music educators, these uncomfortable discussions may trigger an awakening experience that prompts them to confront and sometimes reject their previously held assumptions about certain issues Sears Therefore, as pre-service music teachers become increasingly awakened to the ways in which deeply engrained behaviors and values in the field of music education consistently prevent some students from achieving musical fulfillment and success in school, they will likely be willing and most importantly, ready to engage in a more equitable approach. To move from Adaptation to Integration, aspiring music educators must resolve the issue of authenticity Bennett They must learn how to move in and out of different musical and cultural worldviews within an educational context, while still maintaining their own unique musical identity, values, and preferences. Campbell provides meaningful insight about this particular point. She states, From one Caucasian, Catholic, and middle class teacher to others who will identify with me by way of race, religion, socioeconomic class—or, most certainly, occupation , the responsibility for nurturing children who are more broadly musical and culturally sensitive rests largely on how we ourselves plan our pathways. She takes her cues from the students she teaches; changing musical worldviews as necessary to ensure all students have opportunities to engage in music in ways that are personally meaningful. This example serves as an important reminder that Integration is not just a theoretical idea that cannot actually exist in practice. Integration in the field of music education can and does exist. Yet, these are the very types of music professionals who often experience institutional and systemic injustice, and therefore find it difficult to find employment in higher education music departments Nettl ; Bradley Therefore the question is: Where do we go from here? Several authors recommend experiences they believe might cultivate cultural sensitivity during music teacher preparation programs, such as: Learning to play a non-Western instrument Palmer , performing in a non-Western ensemble Wang and Humphreys , participating in short cultural immersion experiences Campbell a; Emmanuel , and engaging in tough conversations about race and social justice Bradley ; Sears I contend it is time for us to conceptualize our ideas about improving cultural sensitivity in music education from a developmental perspective. A logical first step in this process is honest self-reflection, especially for those of us who work directly with pre- service music teachers in the university setting. References Abril, Carlos R. In Education for the Intercultural Experience, edited by R. Michael Paige, 21— Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Wurzel, 62— Bradley, Deborah. In the Yakima Valley. Carson, Charles, and Maria Westvall. Drummond, John. Emmanuel, Donna T. Bennett, and Richard Wiseman. Hess, Juliet. However, Du also highlighted a range of continuing problems and issues. These included a continued lack of quality and poor economies of scale as a result of rapid expansion; a lack of clear educational objectives; a continued lack of basic resources such as relevant textbooks and other reference material; a lack of qualified and experienced faculty members who have qualifications and experience in the tourism field; a lack of government financial and other support; and little or no tourism academic research. While there is undoubtedly a great opportunity for a country such as China to provide a large number of HE places to its students, the issues highlighted above will continue to encourage students to seek HE abroad. Therefore, many local students cannot study in their country due to lack of HE places and are forced to study overseas. For example, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University regularly receives a level of qualified applications for limited places on their Bachelor of Hotel and Tourism Management Chon, that far exceeds those seen in contemporary universities in Australia, Britain or the USA. This, in part, reflects levels of existing supply in respective universities but also the impact of changing demographics on demand within home populations. The perceived difference in quality of education is echoed by academic staff in China with Chinese scholars ranking western universities above their own institutions Yee, Therefore it might be suggested that the consequent combination of perceived higher quality of western education; limited facilities and resources in Asian institutions; inappropriate staff conducting little or no tourism research; the supply of tertiary education places; and demand by students; will result in many Asian students undertaking tertiary studies in one of the major English speaking destination countries. While the authors admit to there being a significant sampling limitation to their study, it is worthwhile noting that they found that selected students from China, Korea and Taiwan were motivated to study overseas due to a combination of an attraction to the country of study; a perceived improvement in career opportunities once the study period had been successfully completed; a sense of academic achievement; and, interestingly, an impression that their study period would be easy. A number of studies have examined international students studying overseas. However, these have tended to focus on academic issues that international students face. Indeed Pedersen considered that, in order to succeed, such students are expected to adjust to a narrowly defined set of classroom behaviours. There is also evidence of a failure among faculty and institutions in western universities to fully understand the learning needs of international students Biggs, Volet and Ang found that both domestic and international students preferred working on assignments with culturally similar students. Ledwith and Seymour concluded that international students in the UK were either ignored or excluded from group activities by their domestic peers. While both measure specific human characteristics thought to be associated with intercultural sensitivity e. The DMIS Figure 1 , originally published in , and updated in , was designed to assess intercultural sensitivity as a developmental construct and, as such, has been used by researchers interested in understanding the various developmental stages of intercultural sensitivity. It was developed by Milton Bennett in response to the concept of difference, as created and maintained through the perceptual process of human experience. Human experience suggests that individuals enter the social world with habitual system of meanings which constitute implicit cultural values, norms, beliefs and hidden assumptions. This system of meanings is activated when individuals encounter inexplicable phenomena which they seek to interpret on the basis of pre-existing knowledge. Ethnocentric stages Ethnorelative stages Denial Defence Minimisation Acceptance Adaptation Integration Figure 1: The developmental model of intercultural sensitivity DMIS During the process of interpretation, inexplicable phenomena are fitted into pre-established absolute categories which represent the normal sense of perceptual reality. This condition constitutes the ethnocentric stages denial of difference, defence against difference, and minimisation of difference of the DMIS as internal values become fixated and are seldom challenged on the basis of the dialogic process of sense- experience. However, according to Bennett , , individuals have the opportunity to progress towards the ethnorelative stages acceptance of difference, adaptation to difference, and integration of difference of the DMIS. This is achieved by continuous contact with significant others cf. Mead, who demonstrate differences as equally valid alternatives to pre- existing perceptual reality. Rather, they relativise their own opinions by shifting their frames of reference to larger representations of reality Monceri, These representations of reality provide for the creation and maintenance of new perceptual categories according to which meanings are construed. In this sense, the individual interpreter not only considers the underlying values and norms which are shared among members of specific host communities but also focuses on the level of individual behaviour without assuming that the latter is neither inherently inferior to the practices of the interpreter nor to the standards set by the host community Guilherme, The various stages identified by the DMIS are detailed below: 1. Denial is usually experienced when individuals reside in isolated communities and thus have limited or no contact with other cultures and civilizations Bennett, Acceptance constitutes the first sub-stage of ethnorelativism where differences are respected in that they represent equally valid worldviews Bennett, Adaptation constitutes the heart of intercultural communication in that it presupposes that subjects have developed the ability to view reality through the eyes of others Bennett, , The chosen university has been, and continues to be, very active in the international student market and consequently the student body is very diverse. This diversity is evident when the student mix is analysed. For example, in the student body numbered almost 14, 6, home students, 4, EU students and 2, overseas students Napier University, The majority of questions required a prompted response but each question presented respondents with the opportunity to provide qualitative comments as a means of elaboration. The questionnaire was administered to all students enrolled on programmes in the School of Marketing, Tourism and Languages during the early part of semester 2, February The controlled nature of the questionnaire administration resulted in a total of useable questionnaires being completed. The quantitative data collected from the questionnaire were analysed via SPSS, and a range of frequencies and cross tabulations were developed. The non-prompted, qualitative questions relating to how respondents approached dealing with cultural differences were manifest and latent coded, and again a range of frequency tables and cross tabulations were generated, which subsequently allowed for the development of bar charts. These charts are presented in the next section, along with a selection of appropriate qualitative responses made by students. Results and discussion The first question asked respondents to consider their understanding of cultural differences in the learning environment. Figure 2: Emerging problems as a consequence of cultural differences The concept of cultural difference in the classroom was further explored, and all respondents were asked to consider specific issues and problems emerging from cultural differences. Figure 2 provides an overview of their responses. Despite the fact that campus division does not necessarily show a lack of empathy between the respondents, further analysis indicates a rather grim scenario for the university classroom. It was found that all respondents who suggested that they had feelings of resentment responses, and all respondents considering that staff were biased towards some students, came from UK participants. From the emerging evidence, it can be inferred that UK respondents are likely to develop ethnocentric attitudes towards overseas students, created and maintained through defensive strategies. While this may ensure the normal delivery of educational provision for them, it can also establish a boundary which, in this case, could be demonstrated by a divided campus. Figure 3 summarises the advantages or benefits of sharing the educational experience. It can be seen that a majority of respondents suggested that a range of cultures in the classroom provided an opportunity to learn about those cultures, make friends, and interact and share experiences. A significant number indicated that the inclusion of different cultures encouraged them to question their own viewpoints and cultural bias, and others identified cross-cultural interaction as a means of developing contacts for future careers. Figure 3: Emerging benefits as a consequence of cultural differences From the preceding results, it may be contended that some participants have the opportunity to progress towards the adaptation sub-stage of the DMIS, as they appear to believe that differences allow for culture learning by means of interaction and sharing. Although this condition may to imply that respondents are likely to proceed towards adaptation by considering beliefs, attitudes and norms through the eyes of others, it does not necessarily show that all participants in this study will be able to reach this sub-stage. This can be inferred with reference to the relatively smaller number of respondents who appeared to claim that familiarisation would encourage them to question their own identities compared to those who seemed to be inclined towards the learning different cultures standpoint. It can be seen from Figure 4 that the majority of respondents in this sample were willing to recognise cultural differences by possibly attempting to identify ways to solve cultural misunderstandings. However, a significant minority of participants demonstrated that they would ignore any differences by perhaps burying them under the weight of cultural similarities. In addition, a number of respondents stated that they would do neither, perhaps suggesting that they were satisfied engaging exclusively with members of their own in-group. Consequently, all responses that demonstrated an ignorance of differences and all responses stating that no action would be taken came from UK students. As Monceri would argue, these students may be demonstrating a flexible self, emerging from comparison processes with representatives of both their in-group and out-group categories. Recognition and acceptance of these differences may suggest a progression towards adaptation where participants will develop an ability to view reality through the eyes of others. In contrast with overseas students, UK respondents appear to be minimising differences by focusing on cultural similarities. This condition may prevent these UK students from developing intercultural sensitivity since they do not seem to be acting as intercultural subjects by taking critical advantage of the different intercultural narratives available Guilherme, In addition, some other UK students appear to be indicating a degree of ultimate ethnocentrism as they may prefer to exclusively associate with perceived prototypical representatives of their in-group category. Taking into account that some students would prefer to address differences, the following question asked participants to state any possible steps they would take to achieve this. Respondents were presented with a range of responses from which they could choose as many they felt applicable to their situation. Figure 5 presents an overview of the responses. The majority of respondents felt that they would not only respect the cultural differences of others, but also attempt to balance their own norms as a means of self-awareness and development, thus making an attempt to recognise and adapt to both their own needs and those of others. Equally positive was the assertion that some respondents would be willing to temporarily modify their behaviour in order to more effectively communicate with students from different cultures. According to Bennett , , this attitude is perceived at the ethnorelative stages of the DMIS, in particular where instances of adaptation are noticed. In this case, respondents demonstrated willingness towards adaptation by respecting differences and balancing norms. This behaviour suggests an empathic shift from one frame of reference to another, which intercultural theorists recognise as an act of tolerance that is likely to enable the mutual transfer of cultural property and symbolic values Monceri, This is mostly evident from the relatively small number of students who maintained that they would temporarily modify their behaviour in view of cultural differences in the making of an integration posture. Defense Defense against cultural difference indicates an experience in which cultural difference is perceived in stereotyped and polarized ways. Cultures are organized into "us and them," where typically the "us" is superior and the "them" is inferior. People at Defense are threatened by cultural difference, so they tend to be highly critical of other cultures and apt to blame cultural difference for general ills of society. In Reversal, one's own culture is heavily criticized, while other cultures are perceived in relatively non-critical, romanticized ways. The intercultural worldview is still polarized, but the poles are reversed. Minimization Minimization of cultural difference indicates an experience in which elements of one's own cultural worldview are perceived as universal. The stressing of cross-cultural similarity reduces Defense, so people here are much more tolerant of superficial cultural diversity. However, Minimization obscures deep cultural differences, including the masking of dominant culture privilege by a false assumption of equal opportunity. Acceptance Acceptance of cultural difference indicates an experience in which one's own culture is experienced as just one of a number of equally complex worldviews. Acceptance does not mean agreement - cultural difference may be judged negatively - but the judgment is not ethnocentric. People at Acceptance are curious about and respectful toward cultural difference, but their knowledge of other cultures does not yet allow them to easily adapt their behavior to different cultural contexts. Adaptation Adaptation to cultural difference indicates the experience of generating appropriate alternative behavior in a different cultural context.

Counselling international students. The quantitative data collected from the questionnaire were analysed via SPSS, and a range of frequencies and cross tabulations were developed.

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Levine, J. From a demand perspective, Yang, Noels and Saumure considered that international students covet western education as a pathway to a good job with higher levels of pay, consequently resulting in a better life. Wilson Eds.

As critical and reflective music practitioners and scholars, we should continue to explore every avenue that might promote higher levels of cultural sensitivity in our field. From the field of intercultural education, Milton Bennett ; proposes a framework for understanding and facilitating growth in this area, known as the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity DMIS. Through this article, the author provides suggestions for applications of this bennett in music education. Specifically, the essay argues the DMIS framework can help university music teacher educators better understand the ways in which their reflections experience cultural and model diversity, so they will be equipped to design individualized and relevant learning experiences that will move future music teachers towards higher levels of cultural sensitivity within the context of their model preparation programs. Keywords: multicultural music education, social justice, culturally diverse music education, intercultural sensitivity, music teacher education Cultural sensitivity in music education is not a new reflection. Numerous scholars call for increased cultural sensitivity in music classrooms of all levels, citing the widespread Eurocentric approach to teaching music, characterized by an overwhelming focus on musical content from the Western classical tradition and an emphasis on written transmission of music Nettl ; Campbell ; Drummond ; Rampal ; Carson and Westvall ; Sears Despite these ongoing conversations about cultural sensitivity in music education, practical progress towards a more inclusive, diverse, and equitable bennett remains slow— most notably in the United States, where secondary and higher education music education programs remain entrenched in Western European conservatory models of music performance Bradley; Wang and Humphreys ; Rampal ; Carson and Westvall As critical and reflective sensitivity practitioners and scholars, we must continue to examine the essays that have impeded developmental change in this area, while simultaneously exploring new avenues that might provide the developmental of essay about smartphones and psychological problems needed to overcome the underlying systemic sensitivity towards ethnocentrism in our field.

Volet and Ang found that both domestic and international students preferred working on assignments with culturally similar students. The stressing of cross-cultural similarity reduces Defense, so people here are much more tolerant of superficial cultural diversity.