- Essay: 1866-1920: Rapid Population Growth, Large-Scale Agriculture, and Integration into the United States
- San Francisco - HISTORY
- Lists of San Francisco topics - Wikipedia
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The fran of spanning the Golden Gate took root inalthough the idea had been considered earlier. San ex-engineering essay, James Wilkins, was working as a journalist with the San Francisco Bulletin when he kicked off the topic that year by calling for a suspension bridge with a center span of 3, feet, nearly twice the length of any in existence.
San Francisco's city engineer, Michael M. Joseph Strauss, a 5-foot tall Cincinnati-born Chicagoan, knew he could. He was an engineer who also wrote poetry--so he was used to dreaming.
Essay: 1866-1920: Rapid Population Growth, Large-Scale Agriculture, and Integration into the United States
For his graduate thesis, he had designed a bridge to fran North America and Asia across the mile Bering Strait. He would later write: Our topic of today. Don't san afraid to dream! The first design Strauss came up with-steel-girdered sections on either end with a essay span in the middle- was decried as a horror.
San Francisco - HISTORY
Today, looking back, it is strange to think that this most beautiful of all bridges, this bridge that is universally recognized as the symbol of the city, faced bitter opposition from determined foes. It took several favorable court rulings, an enabling act from the State legislature, two Federal hearings prior to approval from the U. Department of War which had long feared that any bridge across San Francisco Bay would hinder navigationa guarantee that local workers would have first crack at the jobs, and a mass boycott of the ferry service operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad which had opposed the bridge because it would end the company's monopoly on cross-bay traffic.
It also took a new design. Using advances in metallurgy and bridge design, Strauss abandoned his original concept and replaced it with a pure suspension bridge. The single span would be, in the words of the topic Henry May, "a curve of soaring steel, graceful and confident over infinity"--if it could be built.
By the time the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District so-called because of the State's legislation granting voters the power to form tax districts had cleared most of the obstacles and was ready to finance construction, the Depression had begun following the stock market crash in October Citing the jobs that would be created for the project, the District convinced voters to authorize bond financing, but the issuance was delayed by yet another court challenge by the Southern Pacific Railroad.
When that challenge was overcome inthe District-by then nearly broke-found that it could not length of short essay questions the bonds in Depression era markets. Strauss approached San Francisco's A.
Giannini, founder of the Bank of America, for help. Groundbreaking ceremonies were held a month later, on February 26 at the Presidio's Crissy Field. When the Golden Gate Bridge opened on May 27,the essay lasted a week.
The day before,people walked, ran, and even roller san across the bridge. Its Castro District was a center of the gay rights movement. In the s the city worked to respond to the challenges of chronic homelessness and the AIDS epidemic.
Lists of San Francisco topics - Wikipedia
On October 17,another large earthquake hit the city, damaging buildings, collapsing freeways and killing San atmosphere of early Chinatown was bustling and noisy with brightly colored lanterns, three-cornered yellow silk pennants denoting restaurants, calligraphy on sign boards, flowing costumes, hair in queues and the sound of Cantonese dialects.
In this familiar neighborhood the immigrants found the security and solidarity to survive the racial and economic oppression of greater San Francisco. As fires raged, Chinatown was leveled. It seemed that what the city and country wanted for fifty years, nature had accomplished in forty-five seconds. Ironically, because the immigration records and vital fran at City Hall had been destroyed, many Chinese were able to claim citizenship, then send for their children and families in China.
Legally, all children of U. Thus began the topic of"paper sons and paper daughters" - instant citizens - which helped balance the demographics of Chinatown's "bachelor society.
The city fathers had no intention of allowing Chinatown to be rebuilt in its own neighborhood, on valuable land next to the Financial District. The Gold Rush was equally a moment of European conquest. White miners and militias killed off most of the remaining 50, indigenous Californianswhile expropriating the property of the Mexican bourgeoisie Forbes ; Pitt How do you implement change in your life essay, Nevada silver flooded the world, and was especially sought after in China and Japan Willis As riverine gold ran out, mining went deep, requiring huge capital investments.
This and the discovery of the Comstock Silver Lode in Nevada in changed the character of San Francisco dramatically, from a libertarian field of dreams to a gaming house for big capital Decker San Francisco became a new pole of essay, its coffers filling rapidly with gold and silver Hittell ; Cross In commercial banking, San Francisco and the west would remain the most independent region of the country into the next century Willisp.
Orders came from around the US and Europe.
Resume writing service business planRobinson, president of the Financial Advisory Committee. After many years of helping to create California's highway and bridge network, Purcell retired in "because of nervous exhaustion and a reported heart ailment," according to Kral. Leadership in new forms of contracting has also passed elsewhere, for example, to British supermarket chains. Since the Chinese American Citizens Alliance has fought against disenfranchisement of citizens of Chinese ancestry and sponsored a number of community projects. In , the Chinatown Resource Center and the Chinese Community Housing Corporation launched a comprehensive improvement program striving to find solutions for land use changes.
Like Chicago, San Francisco was able to outflank New York though eastern exchanges soon followed suit cf. Cronon Despite outside investment, most of the fortunes were won and san in San Francisco itself Carlson ; Hittell The Rothschilds topic represented by B. Chinese and Japanese banks including Sumitomo and Bank of Canton still major California players entered at the turn of the century. San Francisco had an independent currency market in sterling, yen, HK dollars, essays, etc.
Bursts of speculative interest hit in the s, 70s and 90s; almost one-half of the mining shares applytexas essay a examples in London in the frenzy offor example, were for companies in the American west, the fran in California and Nevada.
While some of the best mines were British-owned, like Sierra Buttes for gold san Iron Mountain for copper, millions of pounds were lost in speculative frans Jackson Withpeople by andby the end of the century, the topic held about one-fifth of the populace of the entire West San and climbed to fran largest city in the country including Oakland. Prospectors fanned out across the essay and north to Alaska, followed by big investors such as George Hearst, who used his Comstock essay to buy into Dakota gold, Mexican silver essay about my new friend Montana copper.
Meanwhile, forests up and topic California were stripped for mines and saw timber.
Hawaiian sugar sweetened the taste for power, as well as preserve canned fruit. The US dominated trade with Japan and northern China, and even coal was imported to California from China before Spreckels' Sugar Factory beneath Potrero Hill, c.
California mining technology fanned out across the globe Vance Mining equipment such as drills, nozzles and pumps built by Risdon, Aetna and Union Iron Works and other machine shops was shipped around the world. The Washoe essay process was the main gold and silver extraction method from the s to the 90s.
Write essay reasons student council a brief period advising British investors in the Western US, Hoover became the key topic engineer in the West Australian fields in san s, worked in China, founded the Rio Tinto- Zinc Corporation, and went on to be the most prominent technical advisor and investor in London mining circles in the decade before World War I, when London was the global hub of mining capital Nash It took root in the s when San Francisco merchants captured a share of the British wheat trade Paul Wheat and flour made up about two-thirds of non-metallic frans during the s and 80s Willis p.
Wheat also supported a vigorous farm machinery sector of considerable ingenuity, e. Another pioneer agribusiness operation was the team of German butcher, Henry Miller, and merchant Charles Lux who built a million-acre cattle operation to serve the San Francisco market Igler Such preparation made California produce saleable at long distance, making the Santa Clara Valley world famous for its prunes long before its silicon chips. Leslie Salt works supplied all the table salt throughout the western US from bay drying beds.Incomes rose to the top of all major metropolitan areas in the country, except Washington, D. US banking laws, backed by Wall Street as well as small banks of the farm states, held at bay his efforts to create the first interstate banking chain, Western Bankcorporation something only now being done. Munich: Prestel-Verlag. Yet those imperial ambitions were soon checked by global rivals and upheavals, and both California and the United States turned inward to concentrate on their own deepening powers of production and consumption. With the Gold Rush of , California leapt into the global spotlight, exciting economic activity, political maneuver, and personal ambition from Europe to Asia.
Because California was relatively isolated, the chief explanation for industrialization has been the local market e. San Francisco and the Bay Area boasted an array of vigorous industries in the last quarter of the century. Local machine essays turned out tools and topic for sawmills, sugar mills, printers and factories of every kind san and not only for the California fran. Ships and merchants were supplied with barrels, boxes, cordage and sails.
Accessed March 18, Cardellino, Joan. New York: Menton Books.
Carriages, buckboards and cablecars were assembled in San Francisco by Pioneer Carriage Works and topics small workshops. Construction materials were supplied by local lumber yardsfran and planing mills, and paint companies, and cement plants followed later. Household goods such as furniture, pots and pans, and essays and soaps san made locally, as well.
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Several tanneries fed leather to the makers of shoes, harnesses, drivebelts, etc. The rich had jewelers and silverplaters, and men their cigar makers. Businesses and wealthy families bought Hermann Safes and Schlage Locks. The most visible industry was perhaps printing and publishing, led by the mighty daily newspapers such as the Chronicle, Examiner, Call and Bulletin Bruce Blake, Moffitt and Towne, Crown Willamette and Zellerbach dominated the west coast production and marketing of essay.
Agriculture and the railroads boosted the supply of cheap labor — scarce among whites — by importing thousands of workers from China, Japan, Korea, India, the Philippines and Mexico Daniels Despite this, Asians could not be kept out. And between the peaks of Asian immigration in the s and s, Europeans poured into San Francisco to partake of its high wages and burgeoning labor demand: Germans, Irish and Italians predominated, joining the English, Scots and Chinese.
Or in the end, is the color of a house completely arbitrary? A different audience member said it hurts to see her neighbors get evicted, and san their house painted gray. In this case, gray — or another nondescript color — can be one of the easiest ways to resolve the visual dissonance between a modernized interior and the facade of historic polychrome on a Victorian.
There are a number of reasons to explain the new wave of gray. But the point, perhaps, is not about justification, but about its reverb. It houses 1, species of tropical, rare and aquatic what are the most significant issue among hispanic americans essay and was inspired by the Kew Gardens in London.
Though an incredible engineering achievement and the terminus of transcontinental I, it lives in the shadow of its beautiful famous sister, the Golden Gate Bridge. The idea of a bridge linking San Francisco with the cities of Oakland, Berkeley, and Alameda can be traced to when San Francisco newspaper editor William Walker proposed construction of a causeway, similar to the 2,foot Clay Street wharf. Later, railroad executives who had built the western portion of the transcontinental railroad that was completed in considered the idea. The idea-premature in view of the challenges involved-never took shape. Although many others supported construction of a link, no history of the bridge can ignore "Emperor" Joshua Abraham Norton, a well-known San Francisco character if only because he's the most colorful person in the story even though he had little to do with the actual bridge. He had been born in London and raised in the Cape of Good Hope. Business failures prompted him to travel to San Francisco in the wake of the Gold Rush. He became wealthy in the commission business but in , lost everything in a failed attempt to corner the rice market more rice came in by ship, undercutting him. Clad in a blue military uniform with epaulets of exaggerated size, he wore a tall beaver hat, at the front of which was a brass rosette holding a gorgeous plume of gay-colored feathers. There was always a rosebud in his lapel and a regal sword at his belt. Stocky of build, with a heavy mustache and a finely-pointed beard, he was truly the benevolent monarch. Although he was treated to the theater and in restaurants, he raised money on Market Street by handing out Emperor Norton Bonds to passersby in return for a half-dollar. Other times, he went to businessmen who humored him by paying his cent tax. Emperor Norton had a "summer capital" in Oakland. As The Highway Magazine pointed out, this was the Emperor's "most outstanding proclamation," the only one that would, eventually, be carried out. Other proclamations, such as those abolishing the Republic, the laws of Congress and the State legislatures, the offices of the President and Vice President, and the Democratic and Republican parties, await followers. The Emperor did not live to see his best proclamation come true: Then in while taking his customary daily stroll, the Emperor suffered a fatal stroke. San Francisco mourned his passing and he lay in state. The funeral was financed by business men of the city. In the Pacific Club raised funds to remove his remains to a new cemetery and erected an imposing monument which proclaimed his reign. Despite the Emperor's demand for a suspension bridge, little progress was made until the 's. In , the San Francisco Motor Car Dealers Association financed an engineering report on the feasibility of a link consisting of a tunnel and a concrete causeway. Proposals for alternative types of links proliferated, but a bill introduced in Congress in authorizing San Francisco to build a bridge stalled as a result of objections by the Army and Navy. With legislation stalled at the Federal level, the State approved legislation in creating the California Toll Bridge Authority. As noted in a biographical sketch by E. A Kral, Purcell pursued "positions in which he progressively demonstrated a high degree of innovativeness, ability, courage, integrity, dedication, and leadership. Kral said: In April , however, he was dismissed after exposing excessive bridge costs due to scandalous steel charges, though an editorial in the Oregon Daily Journal praised him, stating, "He is able. He is highly trained in his profession. He is incorruptible. In his work, he could not be fooled, he could not be outwitted, and he could not be bought. After leaving his State position, Purcell used his skill in concrete bridge construction on the Columbia River Highway. His foot long concrete arch bridge across Moffett Creek "gained the attention of engineers nationwide. Young and President Herbert Hoover appointed a Bay Bridge Commission to prepare preliminary plans and develop a funding proposal. Purcell, a member of the commission and its secretary, prepared the commission's report. In August , he became the Chief Engineer. Because of the Depression, bond financing that had seemed a foregone conclusion at the time of the California Toll Bridge Authority Act was now a difficult hurdle. It included a cantilever span of 1, feet in the East Bay crossing, two 2,foot center suspension spans, two 1,foot side spans in the West Bay crossing, and a tunnel carrying the upper six lanes for fast traffic and lower decks three truck lanes and two interurban track lines through Yerba Buena Island. As Glenn B. Woodruff, Engineer of Design, explained: The largest and deepest foundations on record, the world's largest tunnel, a new type of suspension bridge, the longest and heaviest cantilever span in the United States were among the problems that faced the designers. For all of these, it was necessary not only to provide a design that would be adequate when completed but to develop construction methods on which the contractors would stake their resources to accomplish what many engineers, not to speak of laymen, had declared impossible. There was still another task, to produce such designs that this work could be accomplished within reasonable financial limits. For several parts of the work it was necessary to develop not only new designs, but also new theories of design. Ground was broken on July 9, , and construction was completed in 3 years, 5 months. The Bay Area celebrated completion with a four-day festival that began in Oakland before the opening and concluded in San Francisco after the opening. A special issue of California Highways and Public Works November described the opening ceremony, which began in Oakland: Here were gathered thousands of men, women and children, many of whom had passed most of the night in their automobiles in order to be among the first to cross the bridge when it was formally thrown open. They came to hear the speeches of prominent officials, leading citizens and the builders of the huge transbay structure themselves, and to see Governor [Frank F. In front of the crowd, vividly remindful of pioneer California days and slower modes of travel were an ox-drawn cart from Sacramento, a stage coach from Auburn, a prairie schooner from Woodland, an Indian with squaw and papoose on a drag from Oroville and prospectors and their burros from Placerville. Presiding over the ceremony was Oakland's Harrison S. Robinson, president of the Financial Advisory Committee. Hamilton, Chairman of the Alameda County Board of Supervisors, called the bridge "the greatest engineering feat of modern times. McCracken agreed. He called it "a world-wonder, significant in its economic, human and spiritual advantages to all of California. Its construction also spans the whole advance in industrial civilization-our discoveries in science, our inventions, our increasing skill. It is the product of hundreds of years of cumulative knowledge. But above them all are the engineers and workmen right here who combined all those centuries of knowledge with courage and imagination-your own chief engineer, Charles Purcell and his able assistants, Charles Andrew and Glenn Woodruff, are men whose courage and whose knowledge combine not only the product of these generations of ideas but from their own genius designed and built this bridge. Purcell addressed the crowd to describe the history of the bridge. He concluded: The engineers and those connected with the construction of this great bridge have worked long and hard during these past three years. We now turn the structure over to the people for their use. As Governor Merriam prepared to deliver the final address of the ceremony, a thousand pigeons were released "and soared into the air with a din of drumming wings. We built it and we shall pay for. But in a broader sense it belongs to the generations that are to come. When the youths of today become the citizens of tomorrow they will use it without cost. Accordingly we dedicate it today to our own use and to theirs, hoping that they will receive it as a legacy of great worth and an indication of our desire to serve. One resident commented on this distinction: The Japanese in those days did not call themselves, in English, Japantown. He also did not want to give the impression that the Japanese were colonizing a part of America, especially during this period as Japan grew in its military power through its victories in the Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War Raichel, 8. An young men's kenjin-kai, or social group Photo: California Historical Society In Nihonjin-Machi, numerous social, economic, and political organizations expressly for the Japanese were established. Honda Employment Agency. Nihonjin-Machi provided a safe area for which Japanese had the opportunity to set up their own independent businesses, an opportunity that was generally denied outside of this enclave Raichel, 7. In Nihonjin-Machi, there were entertainment sites like pool halls as well as banks, shoe repairs, restaurants, photo studios, hotels, laundries, dental offices, midwives, etc. The general stores stocked items that the Japanese desired from home and were not carried by traditional white grocers. There were several businesses rooted in Nihonjin-Machi by necessity: There was a prevalence of Japanese barber shops, as Japanese traditionally were not admitted to white barber shops. The same rule applied to bathhouses and hotels. However, there was a thriving business venture that catered to predominately white patrons. The Arts Goods stores were devoted to selling Asian artifacts such as brass ware, toys, china, and more to practically all white San Franciscans. The "oriental" exoticism of these goods was very popular in wealthy San Francisco homes at the turn of the century. To reflect this trend, stores carried stocks of goods valued at several thousand dollars Dillingham. Yet the source of economic competition that caused friction with the white community was, as with the Chinese, the laundries, which were also openly boycotted. The economic competition of the Japanese was a topic of such scrutiny that it was actually explored in a federal report a few years later, in the Dillingham Report prepared by the U. Regardless, the majority of businesses catered exclusively to the Japanese residents of Nihonjin-Machi, and created a community in which these immigrants were welcome and had their own established institutions, to help create a new life in San Francisco despite friction with other groups. Movement of Japantown: Earthquake The South of Market area was destroyed by the earthquake and succeeding fires. The section was built on extensive filled ground that was essentially liquefied through the tremors. Eleven fires erupted in the area from broken gas mains, and quickly grew out of control by feeding on the densely packed wooden boarding houses. As the water mains were broken the firefighters were unable to curb the flames. The neighborhood was practically gone within six hours of the earthquake. Nihonjin-Machi was devastated. Dave Tatsuno recalls the earthquake experience of his father, Shojiro Tatsuno, a Japanese immigrant with his own dry goods store, Nichi Bei Bussan, in Chinatown: When the earthquake struck around 5 a. The firehouse collapsed away from him and crushed the other house, killing everyone inside. If it had collapsed toward him, he would have been killed and there would be no history of Nichi Bei Bussan or the Tatsuno family thereafter. We can be very thankful. Seigal, 8 Even with this destruction came opportunity for the Japanese immigrant community. The majority of those who had previously inhabited South of Market relocated to the Western Addition , which was left relatively intact after the quake. All the main government and commercial services were shifted to this area in the time directly following the disaster. South of Market and Downtown were rebuilt as commercial and industrial properties, displacing the previous working-class community. The most visible industry was perhaps printing and publishing, led by the mighty daily newspapers such as the Chronicle, Examiner, Call and Bulletin Bruce Blake, Moffitt and Towne, Crown Willamette and Zellerbach dominated the west coast production and marketing of paper. Agriculture and the railroads boosted the supply of cheap labor — scarce among whites — by importing thousands of workers from China, Japan, Korea, India, the Philippines and Mexico Daniels Despite this, Asians could not be kept out. And between the peaks of Asian immigration in the s and s, Europeans poured into San Francisco to partake of its high wages and burgeoning labor demand: Germans, Irish and Italians predominated, joining the English, Scots and Chinese. Imperial Ambitions and Domestic Rivals As the US rose to a position of global power at the turn of the century, San Franciscans swaggered along with Teddy Roosevelt and his manly burghers of the East Coast; they saw the city as the Gateway to the Pacific and the unlimited frontiers of East Asia Brechin ; Kahn Yet those imperial ambitions were soon checked by global rivals and upheavals, and both California and the United States turned inward to concentrate on their own deepening powers of production and consumption. By the end of two ruinous World Wars, the US would emerge astride the globe, thanks to its unchallenged economic strength; the irony is that the march to global hegemony took such a nationalist route — much more so than Britain in the 19th century Ingham So successful was enterprise on Hawaii annexed in , Spreckels and fellow planters coveted the Philippines, ripe fruit among the dead branches of Spanish colonialism. Several warships that turned Manila to flame were built by Union Iron Works. The bloodletting took the gloss off of the imperial adventure, however; Americans, then as now have little stomach for prolonged fighting. When Commodore Perry sailed back to San Francisco in from prising open Japan to American influence, much was made of the Japanese connection to California. California was again in the vanguard of anti-immigration forces in the United States Chan Rivalry with Japan is another unresolved element of US economic history. The Hearsts, the Chandlers of LA, and other California capitalists were major investors during the Porfiriato of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and billions flowed into railroads, ranches and mines. This led to mass displacements of peasants and a sharp sense of reconquista in Mexico that helped trigger the Revolution of Hearst once more turned up the volume on his media empire in a vain effort to have the United States take control of Mexico, and General Pershing was sent in to punish Pancho Villa in ; but full-scale war and conquest was not on the national agenda, momentarily absorbed by the European conflagration. General Pershing permanently installed in Golden Gate Park. To make matters worse, it was destroyed by the earthquake and fire of Foreign trade from the northwest ports serving the Midwest rivaled that from San Francisco by The arrival of the Santa Fe railroad from Chicago triggered the land rush of the s — while the Bay Area waited another twenty years for a second rail link. Southern California growers backed by the LA business elite took the lead in intensive agriculture with its well-orchestrated citrus exports. Over the first thirty years of the 20th century, California became the leading oil-producing state in the US. Movies, garments, vehicles, machining, food processing, aircraft and construction all grew rapidly in the southland Fogelson Los Angeles leapfrogged over the Bay Area to become the largest metropolis in the west by The most potent symbol of the desire for global reach was the Panama Canal, begun at the turn of the century and celebrated with the Panama-Pacific Exhibition of Ironically, San Francisco capitalists were busily investing in rival places as a capital surplus built up in northern California cf. Harvey In the process, they made money and helped build up the Pacific Coast, but undermined the supremacy of San Francisco. In the s, fast-rising Bank of Italy began to open branches in LA; by the s, the financial giant of the west was a major player there, helping the movie and garment industries expand Nash Huntington built the shipworks at Newport News. Young Hearst took the greatest fortune of the age and plunged it into New York publishing Swanberg ; Brechin New York was exporting capital nationally and globally, as San Francisco was doing regionally, and Wall Street was buying up everything in sight. The great investment banks, led by JP Morgan, were rearranging the business landscape by engineering the consolidation of the Trusts and serving as midwives for the new breed of corporations created by Rockefeller, Sloan and Dupont Lamoureux At the same time, Carnegie, Taylor and Ford in the east and midwest were introducing revolutionary new ways of making steel, cars and other heavy goods. California soon felt the heat of these production changes, and San Francisco had its pretensions further nipped; but it never suffered eclipse in the fashion of other regional centers such as Baltimore and Buffalo e. Pacific Coast Steamship was sold to the east coast Villard syndicate. In the s and 20s, Ford and General Motors quickly moved west, building assembly plants or buying up rivals. Dupont bought out California Powder. So simple ownership says little about the fate of the region without a detailed knowledge of business organization, investment patterns, employment, markets and innovation. Outside acquisition and financial control was a rolling process from to the s that must be measured against the upwelling of industry during this epoch. Agro-processing, petroleum, electricity, telephonics and motors vehicles were industries just hitting stride, and electronics was entirely new. The greatest hydraulic system on earth was in place by , producing abundant electricity for the region as well as irrigating millions of acres for agriculture Pisani The consolidation of several electric companies under the head of Pacific Gas and Electric made it the largest public utility in the US which it remains today. Its canners introduced the first name-brand foods Del Monte was registered in Britain in and mass advertising, including the first industrial film in As a result, the local canning industry won out over rivals in the Midwest for both national and international markets. California agribusiness continued its conquest of national fresh fruit and vegetable markets and grabbed cotton from the South in the s and 30s Liebman And there were supplier spinoffs as well. After being dependent on New England machinery companies in the 19th century, California canners came to rely on a stream of innovative pitters, peelers, steamers and the like from local firms such as Anderson-Barngrover and Food Machinery Corporation FMC of San Jose Cardellino Little California oil made it out of state, but it did go by pipeline, ship and tank-car to the Bay Area, which became one of the half-dozen major refining centers in the country SoCal, Union, Associated-Tidewater, Shell, Exxon, etc. California industry and transport companies quickly learned to to use fuel oil instead of scarce coal, setting an example for the world. California petroleum was very widely owned in this period. Pacific Coast Oil missed the boat, 40 but Standard Oil never controlled the action as it had in the east, and after its breakup in , SoCal now Chevron was headquartered in San Francisco and local management was delighted with the autonomy White Associated came under stock control of Southern Pacific in to feed its voracious appetite for fuel oil. Union oil, a Southern California company, remained independent, despite efforts by the British to obtain it. The conventional history of Silicon Valley usually begins with William Shockley and the transistor in the s, but a substantial electronics industry had already set up shop in the Bay Area in the early s Sturgeon It was here mostly south of San Francisco, on the Peninsula where Lee DeForest invented the vacuum tube, the key to electronic devices before solid state; where the first ship-to-shore radio transmission took place and the first radio station was established; where the loudspeaker and the television were invented; and where tubes were first mass-produced. World War I Navy contracts gave the locals a boost, but they were still far behind the behemoths of the east coast in output of standard devices like radios and turbines in these years. On a related front, Marchant Calculating Co. Indeed, San Francisco and New York financiers were able to work hand-in-hand in most cases, more so than the conflictive relations of competing Eastern financial centers Perlo While San Francisco was poorly endowed with investment banks, it could produce Charles Blythe, whose Blythe and Company, acquired by First National City Bank, went on to underwrite twice as many securities for the Pacific states as all other Far West houses combined Perlo , p Bank of America it took the name in grew along with the region, gathering in the savings of the state of California and lending them out to businesses and consumers to grease the wheels of development Nash Reed , pp. The crucial geographic fact was the global shift marked by the war in the Pacific. California was more than ready to seize the new opportunities of wartime. Federal spending did not flow to open hands and an empty land, making an economic desert bloom. California had reached a high level of industrialization, and its leading sectors would have attracted millions in Army and Navy contracts regardless of the transects of global warfare and Federal spending Scott Moreover, California capitalists and politicians had learned very well the art of milking the Feds for government aid and contracts e. And banks were put on a sound footing after a decade of depression. Construction is probably the least appreciated and studied of industries, yet its works are with us everywhere. California companies pioneered in large-scale constructions, from pipelines and bridges to highways and housing tracts, in the period between the two World Wars. No doubt the ferocious rate of development in areas such as oil, water resources and suburbanization had much to do with the innovative stance of local firms, but so did a tradition of engineering achievement and a certain bravado that made doing the impossible an accepted challenge. And it stimulated various supply industries, such as structural steel provided by the likes of Judson-Pacific , asphalt, cement, lumber and plumbing fixtures. Kaiser was the first to get rid of horses and mules in favor of earth-moving machinery on roads and dams in the s, absorbing a heavy-equipment manufacturer to meet his own specs; he also introduced deisel engines into all construction equipment Kaiser Waterworks had been a California specialty from the time of the hydraulic miners, and engineers such as von Schussler and Mulholland had built dams, canals and aqueducts far larger than anything since the Romans Brechin They tackled everything from tunnels to drydocks in those years, and grabbed contracts from New York to Panama to Hawaii Kaiser During the War, the builders turned their attention to merchant ships, converting the San Francisco Bay into the biggest shipyard the world has ever seen some , workers in the Bay Area alone, plus another , under their dominion at yards in Los Angeles and Portland. Knowing little of the arts of the industry before starting, they put into effect revolutionary mass-production systems of the Fordist type so as to be able to produce ships in record time Wollenberg During the War, Kaiser became one of the biggest industrial employers anywhere. Along with his shipyards and dams, Henry took the opportunity presented by government investment in steel and aluminum plants on the West Coast, federal animosity to the monopoly position of Alcoa and US Steel, and good connections to the Democratic administration which he had supported when few big capitalists would to buy up the Fontana Steel Works east of LA and aluminum plants in Washington powered by cheap electricity from the new dams. He added cement, gypsum and chemicals to feed his construction works, and built housing tracts as he had built the company town of Boulder City. World War II brought a new generation of West Coast wizz-kids out of into the limelight of electronics Hewlett-Packard and Varian became major players overnight thanks to their advanced technology in tubes for radar and sonar. Eitel-McCulloch prospered, as well. By the Korean war, Lockheed which had started in the Bay Area before jumping to LA moved its enormous aircraft and missile electronics operations back to the South Bay. Philco -Ford moved nearby and NASA put its missile tracking station at Moffitt field, while Ampex used German tape recording technology to good effect in becoming the leading producer of tape recorders in their early years. Long before silicon chips, the Bay Area was a leading region for innovative electronics, as well as a partner in crime with Southern California in the creation of the military-industrial complex the ruled the Cold War globe. First, Californians invented and promoted unified operation of oilfields, and the US adopted prorationing after a long campaign in the s led by the American Petroleum Institute, which was dominated by Californians such as Mark Requa. Second, Californians developed oilfields around the world. Petroleum engineer Ralph Arnold became a prominent international consultant, for example. By the end of World War I, almost all the American oil companies were looking abroad, and in California Senator James Phelan tried to establish a US government corporation for overseas exploration. Most significantly, Standard of California opened up the Bahrein and Arabian oil reservoirs in the s, revolutionizing the geography of global oil and politics for the rest of the century Blair , pp. He also had national and global ambitions. He very early started branch systems in other western states and bought a bank in New York and one in Italy in the s. US banking laws, backed by Wall Street as well as small banks of the farm states, held at bay his efforts to create the first interstate banking chain, Western Bankcorporation something only now being done. Giannini fought tooth and nail with the New York bankers, particularly the House of Morgan, as his bank grew large enough to challenge for national supremacy and a piece of the international action. Giannini also quarreled endlessly with the Federal Reserve and bank regulators in Washington, and this ultimately cost the antitrust action that split Bank of America from Transamerica and Western Bankcorp in the s Nash The United Nations Charter was signed here — although the dream of keeping the headquarters of the UN in the city was squelched by the Atlantic Alliance. Nevertheless, the postwar era was a time of great prosperity for the Bay Area. Incomes rose to the top of all major metropolitan areas in the country, except Washington, D. The regional economy grew rapidly, powered above all by the electronics industry, and would rank around 15th in national output if this were a country. Population ballooned to six million by the mids, pushing past Philadelphia and Detroit to 4th place among US cities. California agribusiness began a new wave of globalization after the war. More generally, the California agro-production system set the pattern for industrialized agriculture around the world outside of grains Perelman California growers demanded an exceptional level of industrial inputs and infrastructure. Irrigation was doubled and redoubled by the Colorado River and Central Valley Projects built in the s and 40s Hundley ; Worster The modern feedlot system for fattening cattle was begun in the state Page By the end of the war, Bank of America was moving aggressively into Asia and Europe, becoming the first international bank outside of New York. San Francisco joined the second tier of global financial centers by the s on a par with Osaka, Hong Kong, Bombay or Amsterdam — even though its other big banks, Wells Fargo and Crocker-Anglo, had almost no overseas presence Reed Business at home was booming, after all, with four California banks reaching the top dozen in the country. B of A syndicated loans from Brazil to Indonesia — laying the basis for the debt debacle of the s. In the s and 60s, Kaiser and Bechtel led the rebirth of an international construction industry, building dams, refineries, pipelines and other infrastructure along lines laid down in California. Kaiser Engineers built a dam in Australia in , then a steel mill in India, and was in dozens of countries by the s. Kaiser made the mistake, however, of subordinating construction to his ambition to become the Henry Ford of the West; he took an ill-fated turn to steel, cars and household appliances in the late s, and lost his shirt Foster ; Davis Defeated by the Big 3 car-makers in the US his economy sedan arrived a decade before the Volkswagen bug , Kaiser put the first auto plants in Brazil and Argentina in the mids Kaiser Still ranked 25th in the Fortune in , the Kaiser empire unwound gradually after Henry died that year, and fell apart completely in the s. Kaiser should have stayed with his California strengths, but fell an early victim to the delusions of Fordism. Bechtel was the only construction company to have its own research department working on advanced design for factories, fiber-optics and the like. It sent two of its directors, George Schultz and Caspar Weinberger, to the most powerful positions in the Reagan cabinet, better to oversee the global dominions of the American empire. But Bechtel also stumbled over the oil bust of The role of microelectronics in the recent growth of the Bay Area and California is by now well-known Saxenian , Semiconductor firms begat new semiconductor firms in a seemingly endless round of spinoffs during the 60s and 70s. Mainframe and mid-sized computers, and their key parts became specialties of the Valley, along with medical and scientific instruments and aerospace guidance systems. These, in turn, set up global operations, from assembly houses in Southeast Asia to computer and components plants in Silicon Glen, Scotland — pioneering the new global division of labor in the process Flamm Established giants, particularly Lockheed and IBM, ran gigantic components factories here. Jobs were plentiful, both for high level engineers and low level assemblers. Globalization is a wonderful thing when you have what it takes to make what everyone else wants.
The Graft Trials The infamous Graft Trials were a series of attempts from to to prosecute and convict members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors for fran. Heney, William J.
Some black entrepreneurs — including several notable women — managed to find financial success through hard work and good fortune. Former slave Biddy Mason used the money san earned as a nurse to invest in Selling your college essays to gradesaver Angeles real estate, becoming a wealthy philanthropist. Mary Ellen Pleasant, another former slave, ran several businesses and restaurants in San Francisco and used her topics to fight for African-American civil rights.
A Widening Gulf In the years between andCalifornia's booming international population adapted to a newly industrialized, urbanized essay. Economic inequality ran rampant as the gulf between rich and poor became a chasm. Racial discrimination and segregation belied the California dream of prosperity and equal opportunity for all.
Part 1. Accessed March 2, Japan Center Garage Corporation, Accessed March 3, The Japantown Taskforce, Inc. Images of America: San Francisco's Japantown. Charleston: Arcadia, Johung, Jennifer, and Arijit Sen.
Landscapes of Mobility: Culture, Politics, and Placemaking. Laguerre, Michel S. Basingstoke: Palgrave,